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Chapter 12

PSYC 1200 Chapter 12: Chapter 12

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University of Manitoba
PSYC 1200
Dawson Clary

Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment The Nature of Personality:  A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way across  a variety of situations  According to the five-factor model, most aspects of personality are derived from five crucial traits: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness   The Big Five are predictive of behaviour such as honesty, job performance, and alcohol use, as well as of important life outcomes such as grades, occupational attainment, divorce, health, and morality Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud’s Theory:  Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory grew out of his therapeutic work with clients and emphasized the importance of the unconscious   Freud divided personality structure into three components: the id, ego, and superego    The id is the instinctive component that follows the pleasure principle  The ego is the decision-making component that follows the reality principle   The superego is the moral component OcSD  Freud described three levels of awareness: the conscious (current awareness), the preconscious (material just beneath the surface of awareness), and the unconscious (material well below the surface of awareness)   Freud theorized that conflicts centering on sex and aggression are especially likely to lead to significant anxiety   According to Freud, anxiety and other unpleasant emotions are often warded off with defense mechanisms, which work through self-deception   Freud proposed that children evolve through five stages of psychosexual  development: the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages  Certain experiences during these stages, such as the handling of the Oedipal complex, can shape subsequent adult personality Jung’s Theory:  Carl Jung’s analytical psychology emphasized unconscious determinants of personality, but he divided the unconscious into the personal and collective unconscious   The collective unconscious is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from peoples ancestral past   These memories consist of archetypes, which are emotionally charged thought forms that have universal meaning   Jung was the first to describe the introverted (inner-directed) and extraverted (outer-directed) personality types Adler’s Theory:  Alfred Adler’s individual psychology emphasized how social forces shape personality development   Adler argued that striving for superiority is the foremost motivational force in peoples lives   Adler attributed personality disturbances to excessive inferiority feelings that can pervert the normal process of striving for superiority and can result in overcompensation   Adler stressed the social context of personality development and did pioneering work on the effects of birth order Behavioural Perspectives: Skinner’s Theory:  B.F. Skinner’s work on operant conditioning was not meant to be a theory of personality, but it has been applied to personality oSDP  Skinner’s followers view personality as a collection of response tendencies that are tied to specific situations   Skinnerian’s view personality development as a lifelong process in which response tendencies are shaped by reinforcement Bandura’s Theory:  Albert Bandura’s social learning theory emphasized how cognitive factors shape personality   According to Bandura, peoples response tendencies are largely acquired  by observational learning  Bandura stressed the role of self-efficacy – ones belief about ones ability to perform behaviours that should lead to expected outcomes   Greater self-efficacy is associated with greater success in a variety of athletic, academic, and health pursuits Mischel’s
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