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Chapter 1

PHSI 208 Chapter 1: PHSI 208.6 Chapter 1 Notes (VC1)


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHSI 208
Professor
Baillie Landon
Chapter
1

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PHSI%208.6%–%University%of%Saskatchewan%
Prof.&Veronica&Campanucci&
Chapter%1:%Introduction%to%Physiology%
Lecture'1'
What'is'physiology?'
!"#$%&'&(#)*+,-./'The'study'of'the'normal'functioning'of'a'living'organism'and'its'component'
parts,'including'all'of'its'chemical'and'physical'processes.'
'
01,2(,34)52&5,24%,$)*+,-./)Properties'that'cannot'be'predicted'to'exit'based'only'on'
knowledge'of'the'system’s'individual'components.'
When'units'of'biological'material'are'put'together,'the'properties'of'the'new'material'
are'not'always'additive,'or'equal'to'the'sum'of'the'properties'of'the'components.'
Instead,'at'each'level,'new'properties'and'rules'emerge'that'cannot'be'predicted'by'
observations'and'full'knowledge'of'the'lower'levels.'
Example:'Life'itself.'
'
Levels'of'Organization'
Physiology'(see'definition'above)'involves'integration'of'function'across'many'levels'of'
organization.'
'
At'the'level'of'the'organism,'physiology'is'closed'tied'with'anatomy.'Structure'function'
relationships'exist'among'organ'systems.'
'
Organ%Systems%of%the%Human%Body%and%their%Integration%*678',)9:9.)
System%Name%
Includes%
Representative%Functions%
Circulatory%
Heart,'blood'vessels,'
blood'
Transport'of'materials'between'all'cells'of'
the'body.'
Digestive%
Stomach,'intestine,'
liver,'pancreas'
Conversion'of'food'into'particles'that'can'
be'transported'into'the'body;'elimination'
of'some'wastes.'

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PHSI%208.6%–%University%of%Saskatchewan%
Prof.&Veronica&Campanucci&
Endocrine%
Thyroid'gland,'adrenal'
gland.'
Coordination'of'body'function'through'
synthesis'and'release'of'regulatory'
molecules.'
Immune%
Thymus,'spleen,'lymph'
nodes'
Defense'against'foreign'invaders.'
Integumentary%
Skin'
Protection'from'external'environment'
Musculoskeletal%
Skeletal'muscles,'bone'
Support'and'movement.'
Nervous%
Brain,'spinal'cord'
Coordination'of'body'function'through'
electrical'signals'and'release'of'regulatory'
molecules.'
Reproductive%
Ovaries'and'uterus,'
testes'
Perpetuation'of'the'species'
Respiratory%
Lungs,'airways'
Exchange'of'oxygen'and'carbon'dioxide'
between'the'internal'and'external'
environments.'
Urinary%
Kidneys,'bladder'
Maintenance'of'water'and'solutes'in'
internal'environment;'waste'removal.'
'
The'immune'system'is'diffused:'it'includes'the'lymphatic'system.'Cells'are'scattered'and'
protect'the'internal'environment'from'foreign'substances.'
'
Homeostasis'
;&1,&$47$%$)*+,-./)The'body’s'tendency'to'maintain'relatively'constant'internal'environment'
or'conditions.'
homeo&=&like'or'similar'(range'of'values).'
homo&=&same.'
stasis&=&condition'(not'at'state).'
'
The'regulation'of'the'body’s'internal'environment.'It'keeps'the'internal'environment'stable.'
If'the'body'fails'to'maintain'homeostasis'of'critical'processes,'it'can'result'in'pathological&
conditions.'
'
Maintains'interactions'between'the'outside'world,'extracellular'fluid'and'intracellular'fluid.'
Can'cause'external'or'internal'changes.'Loss'of'homeostasis'is'sensed'by'the'organism'which'
initiates'a'physiological'attempt'to'correct'this'loss.''
'
Dynamic'steady'state'is'not&the&same'as'equilibrium.'
'
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