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Chapter 2

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BIOL 342
Christine Dupont

Chapter 2- Readings DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis (GENE  mRNA  PROTEIN) - The information that is encoded in genetic material is to establish and maintain the cellular and biochemical functions of an organism.  in most organisms, this is DNA - A specific order of deoxyribonucleotides will determine the information content of a gene - Some genes encode for proteins, some will encode for RNA molecules A messenger RNA molecule is synthesized from a structural gene using one of the 2 DNA strands as a TEMPLATE. This individual mRNA molecule will interact with ribosomes, tRNAs, and enzymes in order to produce a PROTEIN. - A protein consists of a specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS, which defines its activity Structure of DNA: DNA is made of nucleotides linked, forming long chains. - A nucleotide will consist of a base, a 5-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group - The two strands of DNA are held together by H-Bonds between the bases of opposite strands - A-T …….C-G Genetic material has two major functions - Encodes information of proteins the sequence of nucleotides of a gene gives the code for production of a protein - Is reproduced (replicated) to pass on the encoded information to new cells -  each DNA strand can act as a template for the production of a new complementary strand DNA Replication: So, every DNA molecule acts as a template for the production of a new strand During replication.. - The phosphate of each nucleotide is joined enzymatically, by the phosphodiester bond to the 3’ OH of the previous nucleotide added to the strand - The nucleotides used for replication have 3 consecutive phosphate groups attached at the 5’ C; alpha, beta, and gamma - In PROKARYOTES: replication begins at the ORI - In EUKARYOTES: there are many different sites of initiation of replication (multiple ORIs), therefore requires ligation and phosphodiester bonds RNA and Protein: Proteins are polymers involved in almost all biological functions; - they catalyze reactions, - transport molecules within cells, - control membrane permeability, - give structural support, - cause movement, - provide protection against toxins, - regulate the production of other gene products Proteins are made up of a sequence of AMINO ACIDS - first AA of a protein will have a free AMINO group, last AA will have a free CARBOXYL group Most RNAs are single stranded, containing URACIL which pairs wit
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