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INTST 101 (33)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Textbook Notes + Lecture Notes!

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Department
International Studies
Course
INTST 101
Professor
Brian Orend
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4 October 9, 2013 6:57 PM Act II: Core Dynamics Chapter 4 - Foreign Policy Policy: from Greek "polis" - community Policy: how a community should be run and why. Domestic: how shall we run our community/country? (education, taxation, health care) Foreign: how should our community/country relate to other countries? Economically, culturally, militarily,environmentally,socially,trade The Powers Central to all policy is exercise of power (ability to achieve things) Hard power: bullets and bucks Economic and militarystrength Maximum short-term leverage Strong economies: USA,EU, and China Strong military:USA, North Korea, Russia, China, UK, France Soft power: getting others to think the way one does cultural and value-based influence Strong soft power: USA, Japan, UK (long history), France, Spain, China and India (vast diaspora) Longer-term leverage Continuum of International power Great Powers Middle Powers Small Powers Rogue Regimes Failed States Great Powers Has both hard and soft power Decision has a global impact Often compete with each other, rivals Unilateralin foreign policy (like to do their own thing) Examples: For sure: USA, China, Russia, UK, and France (UN Security Council) Tasked to maintain peace and stability around the globe Perhaps: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia (oil), India (rapid development and diaspora) US may even need its own category, cannot be compared similarto UK or France Middle Powers Between great and small powers Strong economies Developed, western democratic countries Lack population size, military force, cultural impact, and ambition to become great Co-operative with each other, like minded, good international citizens Fans of international law, institutions, and global co-operation Multilateral in foreign policy Examples: For sure: Canada, Japan, Scandinaviancountries, Brazil,Australia, Maybe: Japan and Germany (restricted militarysize but very strong economies) Small Powers Can be developedor developing Small amount of hard and soft power Therefore small impact on international affairs Examples: How North Korea came to be CaribbeanIslands, Czech Republic, Chile Korean War (1950-1953) Proxy war of the Cold War USA vs. China/USSR Rogue Regimes 1 millioncausality Unilateralin foreign policy Could have been worse Defy international community, bad international citizen Ends in stalemate Actively creates trouble and instability Controlled rogue state Break international law Examples: For sure: North Korea (nukes, sells weapons to anyone) and Iran (supports terrorists groups of extreme Islam) Maybe: Israel, Vietnam, USA (unilateral and defines international law) Dealing with them: Iran - 1979 Revolution Containment Strategy: fencing them in, minimizedamage (used for North Korea, too dangerous to confront directly) Islamicrevolution to overthrow the shah Positive and negative incentives Before governed by a shawl Confrontation: used if all else fails Close ties with UK and US Gave access to oil fields Failed States A lot of corruption by the shawl Theocracy - state used to realize a religiousvision, no separation Still exist as a country but state is non-functional (cannot provide basic needs or govern its people) between church and state Causes: wars, poverty, internal corruption, widespreaddisease, famine Effects: huge refugee flows, more wars, terrorists/criminals,negative cycle Extensive and deliberate use of government power to realize Examples: a religious vision People revolution installed a democratic government Somalia (No functional governmentsince 1988) No national military,no social services,unemployment Still committed to the destruction of Israel Syria, Libya All of Central Africa Narco-State Population explosion, desperate poverty, endemicdisease, huge refugee flows, civil war Economy dominated by drugs Mexico, failedstate to be Mexico, Columbia-cocaine INTST101 Page 1 Somalia (No functional governmentsince 1988) No national military,no social services,unemployment Still committed to the destruction of Israel Syria, Libya All of Central Africa Narco-State Population explosion, desperate poverty, endemicdisease, huge refugee flows, civil war Economy dominated by drugs Mexico, failedstate to be Mexico, Columbia-cocaine Gang wars, drug trade, and human trafficking Afghanistan-poppies Huge brain drain Gangs dominate the economy Life becomes terrible One trick pony Not a diversifiedeconomy Risk at being a failedstate Could take decades to recover Emerging powers Increasing economics/militarystature, rising from one category to the next Historicallysaver-surplus nations tend to go up in power whereas spender-debtor nations go down China Spectacular economic growth, hub of global manufacturing Almostnever invades other countries Doesn’t not promote its ideas onto others Unlike US Massive population poses a lot of problems Arc of Asia:A Major emergingpower bloc Huge diaspora and emigrants Such as the need for a lot of oil Looking into Canadian Oil Sands Bought huge oil reserves in middle east Have a lot of money to invest in Authoritarian regime,not exactly communist India and Pakistan Under the British Empire until 1947, partitioned How Pakistan and India both got nuclear power Done largelyon the basis of religion Answer: Canada Bitter rivals ever since, border disputes Wanted to do something good for the poor country Massive military power, both has nukes Especially for former British Empire members Pakistan: lack political stability, home to extreme Islamicgroups Helped to improve electricity generation Where bin laden was found Gave India a nuclear reactor, the CANDU India: World's biggestdemocracy by population Proud Canadian invention Huge software design,not just call centres Pakista
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