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PSYCH 253 (36)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Persuasion.docx

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University of Waterloo
Hilary B Bergsieker

Chapter 5: Persuasion Persuasion- the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours Process of persuasion: action behave accordingly? remember it? no action believe it? no action comprehend it? no action pay attention to the message no action no action Central route- occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts  Requires higher thought process  Leads to more enduring change  Leslie’s economic plan makes sense, I’ll vote for her Peripheral route- occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker’s attractiveness  Easy way of thinking  Produces superficial and temporary attitude change  “trust the experts” or “long messages are credible”  Leslie seems nice, I’ll vote for her It’s not just what the message is, it also matters WHO says it LOOK AT TABLE OF SEX PERSUASION PRINCIPLES Credibility-believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy. An article on exercise is more credible if it comes from a scientific journal than a tabloid. Sleeper effect- a delayed impact of a message; occurs when we remember the message but forgot a reason for discounting it. Ex) you forget the disclaimer at the end of a commercial saying it came from a biased source How to appear credible: 1. Say things the audience agrees with 2. Be introduced as knowledgable a. From the Canadian dental association vs a student who did a project on dental care 3. Speak confidently a. Be straightforward, do not hesitate or stutter Perceived trustworthiness  Speech style  Audience believes communicator is not trying to persuade them o Eavesdropping – if they don’t know you’re listening why would they be less than honest?  Those who argue against their own self-interest o Being willing to suffer for one’s beliefs helps convince people of one’s sincerity  Talking fast Attractiveness- having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator (often somebody similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference; likability Forms:  Physical attractiveness  Similarity o Black junior high school students heard an appeal for proper dental care. Those who heard the message from a black dentists had cleaner teeth the next day. Which is more important, Credibility vs Similarity Depends on whether to topic is one of subjective preference or objective reality if it is a matter of personal taste, similarity is more important if it is a matter of fact, credibility is more important REASON VS EMOTION  Analytical people generally respond better to rational appeals than less educated people  Disinterested audiences travel the peripheral while involved audiences take central route  Messages become more persuasive through association with good feelings (while eating peanuts) or evoking negative emotions (like when trying to get people to stop smoking) o When fear pertains to a pleasurable activity the result is often denial, so they are more effective if you lead people not only to fear, but to perceive a solution DISCREPENCY  Should you argue an extreme position or not? o If you are viewed as an authoritative source yes, if not then no One sided argument: does not acknowledge the existence of contradictory arguments  Most effective with those who already agree  Stimulates an informed audience to think of counter-arguments and view the communicator as biased. Two sided argument: mentions and responds to opposing arguments  Most effective on those who disagree  More persuasive and enduring if people are aware of opposing arugements Primacy effect- other things being equal, information presente
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