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Chapter 2

Psych 261 Chapter 2 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH261
Professor
James Danckert
Chapter
2

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Psych 261 Chapter 2
Structure and Function of Cells of the Nervous System
-behaviour: function of nervous system; Body: has cells specialized for detecting environmental events
-sensory neurons: gather info. From env. ; eg. light, sound waves, odors, taste, touch
-motor neurons: control movement, contraction of muscles
-interneurons: between Sensory and motor; entirely within CNS
-local interneurons: form circuits with other neurons; analyze small pieces of info
-relay interneurons: connect circuits of local interneurons between brain regions
-nervous system: 2 parts; CNS (skull + spine) and PNS (nerves + most sense organs)
Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons
Basic Structure
-neuron: nerve cell; inf-process & info-transmitting element of NS
-4 regions: i) cell body (soma); ii) dendrites; iii) axon; iv) terminal buttons
-soma: contains nucleus and machinery for life processes of cell
-dendrites (‘trees’); receive message; take info from synapse and connecting terminal button
-axon: tube; partly covered with myelin sheath; carrier action potentional from axon end to T.B.
-multipolar neuron: 1 axon and many dendrites; bipolar neuron: 1 axon and 1 dendrite (usu. sensory)
-unipolar neuron: 1 stalk; transmit sense info. From env. -> CNS; usu. for touch, temp. changes, joints
-CNS: communicates with body via nerves attached to brain and spinal cord
-Terminal button: secrete NT’s when A.P. reaches it; connect via synapse with dendrites/soma
Internal Structure
-membrane: double layer of lipid molecules; cell boundary; contains protein molecules
-protein: detects outside substances (eg. hormones); control access to interior of cell
-nucleus: round; enclosed by nuclear membrane; contains nucleolus and chromosomes
-nucleolus: creates ribosomes & chromosomes; holds DNA(aka genes)
-if chromosomes active -> production of mRNA;
-leaves nuclear membrane and attaches to ribosomes -> protein production
-enzyme proteins: direct chemical processes of cells via catalysts of chemical reactions produce/destroy
-genome: sequence of nucleotide bases on chromosomes with info. Needed to synthesize all proteins
that can be made by an organism
-lots of Junk DNA: (don’t encode for protein); conserved sequences of junk DA found near genes
for development
-non-coding RNA (rna not leading to proteins);
-spliceosomes (cut in RNA): major constituent=non-coding RNA
-cytoplasm: jelly/semi-liquid substance; fills space outlined by membrane; holds organelles in place
-mitochondria: take nutrients from cell to produce ATP (energy for cell)
-rough endoplasmic reticulum: contains ribosomes (for protein production & secrete out cell)
-smooth endoplasmic reticulum: produce lipid molecules; provide channels for segregation of
molecules involved in various cell processes
-Golgi apparatus: special S.E.R.; wrap/packing agent; assemble complex molecules from simple
individual ones
-exocytosis: vesicle migrates to outer membrane of cell; fuses w/ it and bursts, spills out contents
-microtubules: bundles of 13 protein filaments arranged around a hollow core
-axoplasmic transport: substances propelled via microtubules that run length of axon
-soma-> terminal buttons: anterograde A.T.; done via kinesin molecules
-terminal buttons->soma: retrograde A.T.; done via dyenin
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