VCULT100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Zoom Lens, Film Stock, Film Laboratory

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2 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Cinematography
The Photographic Image
Cinematography: writing in movement
Some film makers draw on the film
Range of Tonalities
Contrast
Refers to the comparative difference between the darkest and lightest areas of
the frame
Helps guide the viewer’s eye to important parts of the frame
High contrast: displays bright white highlights, stark black areas, narrow range of
shades in between
Low contrast: displays intermediate grays or color shades with no true white or
black areas
Factors: lighting, filters, choice of film stock, laboratory processing, post
production work
Exposure
Regulates how much light passes through the camera lens
Mainly notice exposure when the image seems too dark (underexposed)
Overexposure can create expressive effects
Filters: glass or gelatin put in front of the lens of a camera to reduce frequencies
of light reaching the film
Can alter the range of tonalities in radical ways
Changing Tonality after Filming
Films can be printed on stocks hat yield different tonal values
Eg. Add color to black and white film stock
Tinting: dipping the developed film into a bath of dye, dark areas remain
black/grey, light areas pick up color
Toning: dye added during the developing of the positive print, darker
areas are colored, lighter portions remain white/faintly colored
Hand colouring: filled in certain parts of the shot with appropriate color
DI (digital intermediate) file
Speed of Motion
Slow motion, acceleration
Rates are calculated in frames per second
Slow motion is often used for/to:
express being in a dream like state
martial art/superhero action scenes
emphasis, dwelling on a moment
**walking to a lyrical rhythm like in the Mood for Love!!***
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Ramping: varies the frame rate during shooting
Time-Lapse cinematography: see the sun set in seconds
Low shooting speed (one frame per hour)
High Speed Cinematography: camera may expose hundreds/thousands of frames
per second (eg bullet hitting glass)
Perspective
Lens of a camera does roughly what ones eye does
The Lens: Focal Length
oShort focal length (wide angle)
Take a wide field of view, but while capturing this the lenses distort the
straight lines lying near the edges of the frame
Exaggerates depth, making figures in foreground seem bigger and those
in the distance seem farther away
oMiddle focal length (medium)
This lens seeks to avoid noticeable perspective distortion
Horizontal and vertical lines are rendered as straight and perpendicular
Foreground and background should seem neither stretched apart not
squashed together
oLong focal length (telephoto)
Flatten the space along the camera axis
Narrower angle of vision
A person moving towards the camera takes more time to cover what
seems to be a small distance
oZoom Lens: enlarge some parts of the shot
Changes focal length as well as framing
The Lens: Depth of Field and Focus
oDepth of field: a range of distances within which objects can be photographed in
sharp focus
oDeep Space: the way a filmmaker has staged the action on several different
planes, regardless of whether all of the planes are in focus
Special Effects
oSuperimposition: images are laid over one another, creating multiple
perspectives within the frame
Originally created by double exposure either in the camera or in lab
printing
Used in dream like sequences
oComposite: separately photographed images are blended in a single composition
oRear projection: the whole ensemble could be filmed from the front
oFront projection: angled mirrors used to summon up more realistic looking
backgrounds
oMatte Work: a portion of the setting photographed on a strip of film, usually
with a part of the frame empty
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