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BIOL 112 (157)
Chapter 16

Textbook Notes on Chapter 16

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 112
Karen Smith

Chapter 16 Notes DNAtranscription mRNA translation Proteins 161Transcription in BacteriaRNA polymerase preform templatedirected synthesis from 53 and no primer needed to begin transcription synthesize mRNATranscription occurs when 1 RNA polymerase matches the base of ribonuculeotide triphosphate with a complementary base ingene gene section of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA 2 RNA polymerase catalyzes formation of phosphodiester bond between 3 end of growing mRNA and the new ribonucleotide 3 RNA that is complementary to the gene is synthesizedRNA Polymerase Structure and Functionstructure found by using crystallography which allows biologists to obtain 3D images of moleculesshape large globular many channels running through interioractive site located where several channels intersectDNA fits into one of the enzymes channels two strands of DNA in doublehelix separate inside the enzyme to produce single stranded template at active site InitiationPolymerase cant do it on their ownSigma detachable protein subunit must bind to polymerasePolymeraseSigmaholoenzyme whole enzyme which is made of core enzyme polymerase which contains active site and other needed proteinsSigma guides RNA polymerase to specific location where transcription should beginpromoterpromoters 4050 nucleotide base sequence on nontemplate strand of DNA binds to RNA polymerase lets transcription start prokaryotic a single promoter for several genes eukaryotic each gene has own promoterTATAAT 10 box centered 10 bases upstream from where RNA polymerase starts transcriptionDownstream direction RNA polymerase moves during transcription Upstream opposite direction1 site place where transcription beingsTTGACA 35 box located 35 bases upstream from 1 site Sigma binds to 10 and 35 boxessigma makes first contact with DNA to start transcription in bacteriasigma is regulatory protein that tells RNA polymerase where and when to start synthesis After sigma binds DNA helix opens up and single strand is threaded through active site ribonucleoside triphosphates NTPs enter channel and diffuse into active site NTP pairs with complementary base on template strand of DNA polymerization beings entire process is spontaneous and exergonic NTPs have a lt of PEElongation RNA polymerase move along DNA template from 35 synthesizing RNA in 53 direction Inside the enzyme group of projecting amino acidsenzymes zipper help open double helix upstream Rudders amino acids steer templatenontemplate through correct channels inside the enzyme At active site addition of nucleotides to 3 end of the growing RNA molecule at 50 nucleotidesec
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