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BIOL 112
Karen Smith

Metabolism – Section 6 Chemoheterotrophs: Metabolism *C from organic C ** Energy: oxidizing organic molecules (ex. Glucose into ** ATP synthesis used: chemiosmotic synthesis Catabolism: Anabolism: rxns that build nutrients (produces energyomponents (require and some components) energy) Phototrophs: *C from CO2/some organics Catabolism Examples: ** Energy: light **ATP synthesis used: chemiosmotic 1. Breaking lactose into glucose and glactose into smaller molecules synthesis 2. Amino acids (ex. Histidine) degrading to Chemolithotrophs: produce reduced nitrogen (NH4+) and *C from CO2 carbon molecules ** Energy: oxidizing inorganic molecules **Energy being produced is trapped in ** ATP synthesis used: chemiosmotic other molecules. Ex. ATP and electrons are synthesis trapped in a molecule called NADH + H+  Substrate level phosphorylation: (reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide) Intermediate products: proteins, cell - All organisms can use to make ATP - Some chemoheterotrophs use only walls/membranes, DNA/RNA etc this - NO chemolithotrophs or Anabolism Examples: * uses the energy (ATP and NADH + H+) phototrophs use ONLY this trapped in other molecules Organic Molecules: have C-H bonds. * cells can take up molecules and use them  Things to Remember: in anabolic rxns without breaking them 1. Cells are made of C,H,N,O,P and S down first. Ex. Humans do this 2. Heterotrophs: get cellular carbon from ** Human cells cannot male 8 essential environment (ex. Humans, chemoheterophs amino acids (so they are absorbed from are also heterotrophs) food and used directly in protein synthesis) **In heterotrophs: catabolism and ** Majority of bacteria are capable of anabolism are linked – use carbon in making amino acids therefore have more molecules for ATP synthesis and cell part complicated anabolic rxns3. Autotrophs: get cellular carbon from Ideas: inorganic source (Ex. CO2) 1. Energy is related to work (work = ** Carbon fixation: CO2 -> molecule w/ C-H bonds (requires energy imput)
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