BIOL 112 Chapter Notes -Xylose, Cilium, Pyrite

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6 Apr 2012
Metabolism Section 6
Catabolism Examples:
1. Breaking lactose into glucose and
glactose into smaller molecules
2. Amino acids (ex. Histidine) degrading to
produce reduced nitrogen (NH4+) and
carbon molecules
**Energy being produced is trapped in
other molecules. Ex. ATP and electrons are
trapped in a molecule called NADH + H+
(reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide)
Intermediate products: proteins, cell
walls/membranes, DNA/RNA etc
Anabolism Examples:
* uses the energy (ATP and NADH + H+)
trapped in other molecules
* cells can take up molecules and use them
in anabolic rxns without breaking them
down first. Ex. Humans do this
** Human cells cannot male 8 essential
amino acids (so they are absorbed from
food and used directly in protein synthesis)
** Majority of bacteria are capable of
making amino acids therefore have more
complicated anabolic rxns
*C from organic C
** Energy: oxidizing organic molecules (ex.
Glucose into
** ATP synthesis used: chemiosmotic
*C from CO2/some organics
** Energy: light
**ATP synthesis used: chemiosmotic
*C from CO2
** Energy: oxidizing inorganic molecules
** ATP synthesis used: chemiosmotic
Substrate level phosphorylation:
- All organisms can use to make ATP
- Some chemoheterotrophs use only
- NO chemolithotrophs or
phototrophs use ONLY this
Organic Molecules: have C-H bonds.
Things to Remember:
1. Cells are made of C,H,N,O,P and S
2. Heterotrophs: get cellular carbon from
environment (ex. Humans, chemoheterophs
are also heterotrophs)
**In heterotrophs: catabolism and
anabolism are linked use carbon in
molecules for ATP synthesis and cell part
rxns that breakdown
nutrients (produces energy
and some components)
Anabolism: rxns that build
components (require
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