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Experiment 1 Notes.docx

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CHEM 235

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Experiment 1: Distillation and the Purity of Liquids Introduction  Distillation= process where you heat a substance until it vaporizes  Condensing = process where the vapors are cooling  Receiver= a separate vessel where you collect the condensate (distillate) from the condensation/ distillation process o Refulxing = where condensate returned to original vessel  Distillation is a technique used to separate a mixture when components of mixture have different boiling point ; also used to purify liquid o Happen only if these condition applies  One of the two component in mixture must be volatile (ie/ there could be nonvolatile solid present which would be left behind in distillation flask)  if 2 or more volatile liquid are separated, they must have wide separation between boiling points (ie/ +50 degrees)  components must not form an azeotrope  Boiling point for liquid= temperature where total vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure o Pure liquid  the boil point is constant throughout the experiment o Mixture of 2 or more miscible substance  boiling point fluctuate during distillation  Because the composition varies continuously  vapor pressure of liquid varies hence the boiling point varies  Mixture of liquid distills at constant temperature with constant composition although the different components have different boiling point o Due to intermolecular interaction between components of mixture o This system is called azeotrope  Lower curve = variation of boiling point of the mixture with composition  Top curve= describe composition of vapor that is in equilibrium with liquid at boiling point  Simple Distillation o We assume that as soon as the liquid boils, the vapor produces immediately reaches the condenser without any change in composition  See page 1-2 for more explanation of graph  When you’re at X and you reach X a1ter a particular time  Then from X after a parti
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