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COMM 292 Chapter Notes -Telecommuting, Extraversion And Introversion, Heredity

Course Code
COMM 292
Tracey Gurton

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Chapter One
Organizational Behavior
Def’n: field of study that looks at the impact that individuals, groups and structure have
on behavior within organizations
Organization: consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people, that
functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal
Individual Level
1) Individual differences: personality characteristics, perception, values, attitudes
2) Job satisfaction demand
3) Motivation
4) Empowerment
5) Behaving ethically
Ethics: study of moral values/principles that guide our behavior and inform us of
right or wrong
Group Level
1) Working with others
2) Workforce Diversity: mix of people in terms of gender, race, age, etc.
Organizational Level
1) Use of temporary/contingent employees
2) Improving quality and productivity
3) Developing effective employees
a. Organizational citizenship behavior: discretionary behavior that is not part
of an employee’s formal job requirements  go beyond
Positive work environment
Positive organizational scholarship: how organizations develop human strength, foster
vitality and resilience and unlock potential
OB Looks Beyond Common Sense
Systematic study: looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects,
drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
Approach Evidence-Based Management (EBM): basing managerial decisions on the
best available scientific evidence
Systematic study and EBM add to intuition: “gut feeling not necessarily supported by

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Building Blocks of OB
OB: Contingency Approach
Considers behavior within the context it occurs “depends on the situation”

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Chapter Two
Perception, Personality and Emotions
Perception: process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order
to give meaning to their environment
Factors Influencing Perception
The perceiver, the target and the situation
Perceptual Errors
Attribution Theory: we attempt to determine if an atypical behavior by an individual is
internally or externally caused
Internal: under the individual’s control
External: result from outside causes
1) Distinctiveness: whether the individual acts similarly across a variety of
“How often does the person do this in other situations?”
a. Unusual/distinct: external
2) Consensus: how an individual’s behavior compares with others in the same
“How often do other people do this in similar situations?”
a. Consensus: external
3) Consistency: whether the individual has been acting in the same way over
“How often did the person do this in the past?”
a. Repeated action: internal
Fundamental Attribution Error: judging the behavior of others successes to external
factors and blaming failures on internal factors
Self-serving bias: tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal
factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Selective perception
Defn: peoples selective interpretation of what they see based on themselves
1) Halo effect: drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a
single characteristic
2) Contrast effect: our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people
we recently encountered
3) Projection: attributing ones own characteristics to other people
a. Perceiving others like themselves  not see individual differences
4) Stereotyping: judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group
they belong
a. Heuristics: judgment shortcuts in decision making
5) Prejudice: unfounded dislike of a person/group based on their belonging to a
particular stereotyped group
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