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Chapter 14

COMM 292: Chapter 14

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COMM 292
Angela Kelleher

COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour Chapter 14 What Causes Change?  The changing nature of the workforce o Human resource policies and practices have to change to reflect the needs of an aging labour force  Technology is changing jobs and organizations  Economic shocks have continued to impose changes on organizations  Competition is changing with globalization and better transportation  Social trends don't remain static, and continually change with time Change Agents:  People who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities Approaches to Managing Change Lewin's Three-Step Model:  Unfreezing: change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity  Moving: efforts to get employees involved in change process  Refreezing: stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces  Driving forces: forces that direct behaviour away from the status quo  Restraining forces: forces that hinder movement away from the status quo Kotter's Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change: 1. Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed 2. Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change 3. Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision 4. Communicate the vision throughout the organization 5. Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk- taking and creative problem-solving 6. Plan for, create, and reward short-term wins that move the organization toward the new vision 7. Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs 8. Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviours and organizational success Action Research:  A change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate o Two step process, first diagnosis followed by analysis and feedback Appreciative Inquiry:  An approach to change that seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour o Discovery: to find out what people think are the strengths of the organization o Dreaming: information from the discovery phase is used to speculate on possible futures for the organization o Design: participants focus on finding a common vision of how the organization will look, and agree on its unique qualities o Destiny: participants discuss how the organization is going to fulfill its dream Resistance to Change Individual Resistance:  Self-interest: people worry that they will lose something of value if change happens o People look after their own self-interest rather than those
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