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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Theories of Motivation.docx

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COMM 292
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Chp 4 Theories of MotivationWhat is Motivation MotivationThe intensity direction and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal i Intensityhow hard a person tries ii Directionchannelling towards a beneficial manner iii Persistencehow long a person can maintain his or her effort Douglas McGregor proposed two views of human beings 1 Theory XThe assumption that employees dislike work will attempt to avoid it and must be coerced controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals 2 Theory YThe assumption that employees like work are creative seek responsibility and will exercise selfdirection and selfcontrol if they are committed to the objectivesLevel of motivation varies both among individuals and within individuals at different times Intrinsic MotivatorsA persons internal desire to do something due to such things as interest challenge and personal satisfaction Extrinsic MotivatorsMotivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay bonuses and other tangible rewards Needs Theories of MotivationNeeds theories describe the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals o They represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown o Practising managers still regularly use these theories and their terminology in explaining employee motivationMaslows Hierarchy of Needs TheoryAbraham Maslow
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