Chapter 6Orienting and Training Employees for High Performance
Providing new employees with information about the company and its industry, and the
Socialization of new employees to adopt the organization’s values, behaviours, and
Orientation may be formal or informal depending on what organizations perceive as the
best way to introduce employees to the company.
Orientation conducted by HR and immediate supervisor
A presentation providing an overview of the firm
An administrative checklist of tasks to be conducted prior to a new employee’s start date
and during the first three months of employment.
Employee Orientation: A procedure for providing new employees with information
about the company and its industry, and the job.
Socialization: The ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes,
standards, values, and patterns of behavior that are expected by the organization.
Reality shock: A new employee’s realization that there are differences between his or her
personal expectations about the job and the realities of it.
Evaluation of Orientation Programs
There are three approaches to evaluating orientation programs:
1. Employee reaction: Interview (either individually or in focus groups_ or survey
new employees for their opinions on the usefulness of the orientation program in
helping them transition into the company and their new jobs.
2. Cost/benefit analysis: Calculate the return on investment from orientation
programs by comparing orientation costs and the benefits of orientations.
3. Employee evaluation: Asses the degree to which orientation contributed to new
employees’ onthejob performance as part of their first performance evaluation.
Training: The process by which organizations equip employees with the knowledge,
skills, and abilities to perform their current jobs according to organizational standards. It
has a shortterm focus on developing an employee’s ability to perform tasks as described
in the job description.
Development: A longterm initiative, such as mentoring, leadership development, or job
rotation, designed to prepare employees for future jobs within the organization.
Negligent training is another potential problem. Negligent training occurs when an
employer fails to train adequately and an employee subsequently harms a third party.
The FiveStep Training Process
1. Needs analysis 2. Instructional design
3. Implementation and delivery of training
4. Transfer of learning
5. Evaluation and followup
Step 1: Needs Analysis
Needs analysis is a form of research used to discover what training and developmental
needs are required by an organization.
Needs analysis consists of organizational analysis, task analysis, and person analysis.
Ascertain whether there is a deficiency of knowledge or deficiency of execution before
designing a training program.
Most important and complex step in developing a training program.
Organizational analysis: An assessment of an entire organization that investigates the
strategies, resources, and support systems it has in place for training.
Task analysis: A detailed study of a job to identify the skills and competencies it
requires so that an appropriate training program may be designed.
Person analysis: Identifies which employees require training and what specific training
they require to reach organizational expectations.
Deficiency of knowledge: Lack of skills, knowledge, and abilities to do a job according
to company standards, which can be solved by training.
Deficiency of execution: Lack of interest or motivation to work to standard, which can
be solved by nontraining interventions such as reward systems and job redesign.
Step 2: Instructional Design
Concrete, measurable training and development objectives should be set after the trainer
has identified employees’ specific training and development needs. Objectives specify
what the trainee should be able to accomplish after successfully completing the training
or development program.
Traditional Training Strategies
Onthejob training (OJT): Learning the job while performing it.
Apprenticeship training: A structured process by which individuals become skilled
workers through a combination of classroom instruction and onthejob training
(electrician and plumber).
Job instruction training (JIT): Listing of each job’s basic tasks, along with key points,
in order to provide stepbystep training for employees.
Programmed learning: A systematic method for teaching job skills that involves
presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond, and giving the learner
immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.
Vestibule or simulated training: Training employees on special offthejob equipment,
as in airplane pilot training, so that the training costs and hazards can be reduced.
ELearning Elearning: The delivery and administration of learning opportunities and support via
computer, networked, and webbased technology to help individual performance and
There are three major types of computerbased training: computerbased training, online
training, and electronic performance support systems (EPSS).
Computerbased training: In computerbased training (CBT), the trainee uses a
computerbased system to interactively increase his or her knowledge or skills.
Computerbased training almost always involves presenting trainees with integrated
computerized simulations and the use of multimedia (including video, audio, text, and
graphics) to help them learn how to do the job.
Online training is often the best solution for highly specialized business professionals
with little time