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PSYC 100 - 1 History and Approaches.docx

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PSYC 100
Peter Graf

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AP Psychology History and Approaches Pre­scientific Psychology Socrates, Plato, Descartes: • Believed the mind and body were separate entities (dualism); most ideas, thoughts, traits were inborn (Nature over nurture) Aristotle and Locke: • Believed that the mind and body were connected (monism) and that the mind was a ‘blank slate’ upon which experience writes (Nurture over Nature) Foundations of Modern Psychology Psychology – the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes • Behavioural – experimenting by creating situations that shows a causal relationship; observing the actions • Mental – think and feel • Roots: medicine and philosophy; out of a field called psychophysics Early schools of Psychology • Structuralism – used introspection to explore the elemental structure of human mind. o self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations o Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener, G. Stanley Hall • Functionalism – how mental and behaviour processes function –enable the organism to adapt, survive, flourish o William James • Gestalt Psychology – studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns; against dividing human thought and behaviour o Max Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka Nature (innatism/nativism) vs. Nurture (Empiricism/behaviourism) - behaviour results from hereditary or experiences - controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours • Nature: Socrates, Plato, Descartes • Nurture: Aristotle, Locke, Watson, Skinner, (Wundt, James, Titchener) Stability vs. Change - Do our individual traits change as we age or do they remain fairly stable? Do our traits change in different situations? Rationality vs. Irrationality  - Are we in control of our own behaviour? Do we have free will or are we at the mercy of unconscious desires or our environment? AP Psychology Psychological Perspectives Neuroscience/Biopsychology – studies how the brain and other body systems create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences - Genes, hormones, neurotransmitter Evolutionary /behaviour genetics – how natural selection of behaviour traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes, reproductive success - Darwin Psychoanalytical (clinical)–both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind - Psychoanalytical – thinking; Psychodynamic – actions - Behaviour reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences - Drives/urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behaviour - Early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations - Sigmund Freud (psychoanalysis), Jung, Adler, Horney, Kohut (psychodynamic psychologists) Humanistic (clinical) – focuses on free will and reaching one’s full human potential - We choose most of our behaviours and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs - Focus on conscious forces and self perception - Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Behavioural /Ethological– study of animal behaviour in the natural environment rather
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