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Chapter 1

APA 1302 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Respect Diversity, Antonio Gramsci, 2010 Winter Olympics


Department
Human Kinetics
Course Code
APA 1302
Professor
Michael Robidoux
Chapter
1

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APA 1302 CHAPTER ONE:
Perspectives on the Social Dimensions of Sport and Physical Activity in Canada
Sport is an extremely popular social phenomenon that has exploded in visibility and
popularity in the last 30 years
Still remains significant and enduring issues of inequality between men and women, rich
and poor, and racial and ethnic lines
According to the latest research paper on sport participation rates released by Canadian
Heritage (2013):
1. Sport participation rates across the country continue to decline
2. The gender gap in sport participation has increased, and men are more likely to
participate in sport than women
3. Sport participation rates decrease as Canadians get older, yet the participation
rates of young Canadians are declining faster than that of older Canadians
4. Higher income earners are more likely to participate in sport than less affluent
Caadias, ad household ioe deisiel ifluees hilde’s patiipatio i
sport
5. Sport participation of non-Anglophones is declining, and established immigrants
participate in sport less than recent immigrants
In 2013, women comprised only 21 of 101 active members of the IOC and in 2011
women held only 15% of head coaching positions in CIS
Interest and participation in sport and physical activity are related to a number of
standard sociological variables (gender, race, social class, age, geographical location,
education levels, etc)
“pot is ot sipl a efletio o io of soiet ut, a old i its o ight, ith its
own life ad its o otaditios
Sport is shaped by the social world around us, so it actively shapes the social world
Sociologists examines the ways in which social structures, power relations, and
institutions (family, social class) enable and constrain individuals and groups
Atho Giddes 1: soiolog aot e a eutal itelletual edeao
Practical consciousness:
o your accepted beliefall of the things about sport and Canadian society that you
may be tacitly aware of without, at times, being able to give them direct
expression or explanations
o Patial osiousess is shaped  ou epeiees of doig, osuig,
ad iteatig ith aious soial stutues, istitutios, ad ideologies
o They frame the possibilities you can imagine in sport and beyond
o Practical consciousness is never static
Origins of Sport Sociology
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Sociologists examine and explain how various social institutions transform sport and,
like wise, how sport can be used to transform broader social structures against the
backdrop of a range of cultural struggles, pressing political debates, and social
movements
An organized society for the study of sport:
o NASSS
o emerged after a Big Ten Symposium in 1978
o their mission is to promote, stimulate, and encourage the sociological study of
play, games, sport, and contemporary physical culture
We are more interconnected with the rest of the world than ever before
To claim that Canadian sport is a unique entity thriving on its own without any external
influences would be naïve and inaccurate
There are unique elements in Canadian life and culture
Sport continues to play a significant role in providing a range of symbolic meanings and
values that are important to Canadians and are part of the ongoing story that we tell
ourselves about who we are and what it means to be Canadian
Sport has the capacity to represent our communities and our nation on the world stage
o In the 2010 Olympic Winter Games, Canada won the most gold medals
o Third overall in medal count
o “ide Cos’s sudde-death oetie iig goal, The “hot Head Aoud
the Wold, eae a idelile Caadia eo, poided the e
geeatio of Caadias ith thei o Paul Hedeso oet
o Aleade Bilodeau’s gold edal i the e’s oguls, the fist gold edal fo
Canada at an Olympic Games held in our country
o These victories have been mythologized as part of the story of who we are and
what we value as a country
Popularity and visibility of sport events suggests that they are more important features
of everyday life in Canada and contribute to a distinctive Canadian cultural identity
Defining Sport
Sport: any formally organized, competitive activity that involves vigorous physical
exertion or the execution of complex physical skills with rules enforced by a regulatory
body
To be competitive, the organizational and technical aspects must become important,
including equipment and systematic training protocols
The rules of the activity must become standardized and formalized by a regulatory body
that oversees rule enforcement
Both organized sport and informal ways of playing have emerged over the course of
many years
Informal sport: physical activities that are self-initiated with no fixed start or stop times,
it has no intangible outcomes such as prizes or ribbons and victory and reward are not
dominant features in this form of activity
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