CMN 3133: Reading #3 Sept 19 2013
Social Influence by Manipulation: A definition and Case of Propaganda
A broad theory of propaganda, on die other hand, implies that all persuasion can be seen as propaganda,
which may result in scholars ignoring propaganda as an issue altogether.
All communication with a motive becomes propaganda
Latin verb propagare means to ‘ spread or extend in space or to extend in time. The English derivative
‘propagation’ originally meant simply an extension in time and space. Propaganda thus has a wide
application in its original sense.
Usage now is restricted to a negative connotation.
Propaganda becomes vicious and reprehensible only when its authors deliberately disseminate lies, or
when they aim to damage the common good.
The Institute for Propaganda Analysis
Toe beginning of World War II, through the Institute for propaganda Analysis (IPA), propaganda analysis
However, around the time of World War II, propaganda analysis gradually was replaced by the new field of
Trends were working against a critical social analysis, and perceived external threats to US security
legitimized the manipulation of modern mass communication. Yet we cc can become coconspirators in our own self deceit. N. J. O’Shaughnessy claims that self
deception is not necessarily always motivated by an aversion to some truth, but simply motivated by an
aversion to some truth, but at simply motivated by affection for some particular falsehood.
New Definition Between Narrow and Broad Propaganda Theories:
Propaganda is organized mass communication, derived from a hidden agenda on a mission to conform
belief and action by manipulating mechanisms—drawn from a hidden agenda on instrumentality—to
circumvent individual reasoning and rational choices.
The Vietnam War was called the first television war. World War II was basically a radio war. World War I
was termed the first propaganda war.
The 2003 Iraq War perhaps was the firstever Internet war [sic] With more than half a billion people
worldwide connected to the Internet.
Propaganda conceals its agenda, which sets propaganda apart from advertising. Advertising, regardless of
hidden agendas, is clear in its intention and normally does not mislead consumers with its motive, whether
in newspaper, radio or television advertising.
As another part of a hidden agenda, propaganda conceals its devices which must be revealed counteract
Third, propaganda conforms belief and action There are several mechanisms that can be employed
effectively to suppress rational reasoning, thereby deactivating awareness of possible biases in reasoning
and information. In propaganda there is a balance between reasoning (existing beliefs) and approval (belief
formation). Propagandee patriotism (emotions, beliefs, and prejudices) is exploited so as to resonate with
the new beliefs, e.g., that Iraq has built weapons of mass destruction (Propaganda as pretense can adapt
its message to simplistic propagandee expectations. Fourth, propaganda is heavily based on another mechanism, namely the combination of argumentation and
emotional arousal.41 Emotive language frequently is used to manipulate propagandee response; e.g., to
prevent reflection about premises an evidence.42 Walton’s emotional fallacy theory includes tactics for
blocking legitimate dialogue goals. A common feature of Walton’s fallacious ‘arguments’ is the emotional
appeal or the speaker’s ability to arouse and exploit the sentiments and prejudices of a target audience.
Every speech must employ a mixture of truth and falsehood and to gain approval.
Argumentum ad ignorantiam. A proponent can argue that a proposition because it is not proven to be true.
Seems to be a type of anything ?oes and doe