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Chapter 1

HSS 2381 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Research Question, Dependent And Independent Variables, Descriptive Statistics

Health Sciences
Course Code
HSS 2381
Eleanor Riesen

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Data Analysis in an Evidence-Based Practice Environment -
Data Analysis & Nursing Research:
Evidence-based practice (EBP): Use of best clinical evidence in making patient care decisions
Research & Evidence-Based Practice:
Research: is systematic inquiry that uses orderly, disciplined methods (including statistics) to answer
questions or solve problems
The aim of nursing research is to generate evidence that can contribute to EBP for nurses
Typical Steps in EBP:
1. Asking clinical questions
2. 2) Searching for research evidence that addresses the question
3. appraising the evidence
4. integrating the evidence with one's own clinical expertise & info about patient preferences
Next step: locate appraisal
Appraisal: all aspects of relevant study; how sample of participants were selected, how
confounding variables were controlled, hwo concepts were measured, how the research info
was gathered, how info was analyzed
The Analysis of Research Data:
1. Research problem identified (e.g., high stress in hospitalized children)
2. Research question asked: Will a music intervention reduce stress?
3. Concepts defined/measured
4. Data collected
5. Data analyzed through statistics
Data: is the information gathered to address research questions
In quantitative research, data are usually quantitative (numbers) & subject to statistical analysis
Statistics: refers to collection of mathematical methods of organizing, summarizing, analyzing, &
interpreting information, drawing conclusion gathered in a study
Concepts & Variables:
Research Variables:
Concept : An abstraction inferred from characteristics or behaviors
o Examples: pain, stress, body temperature
In quantitative studies, concepts are called variables
A variable is something that takes on different values; varies
o Height, sex, and respiratory rate vary from one person to the next
Independent & Dependent Variable:
Independent variable: cause of or influence on the dependent variable
Research questions: are the queries researchers seek to answer through the collection +analysis of data
Research questions communicate the research variables & the population (the entire group of
Ex: In hospitalized children (population) does music (X/IV) reduce stress (Y/DV)?
Operationalizing Variables:
Variable Definition:
In studies, variables need to be defined:
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