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Music (17)
MUS1303 (1)


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University of Ottawa
Alyssa Woods

LISTENING TO MUSIC KEYWORDS Chapter 1: Listening to Music Keywords Define Acoustic Instruments that produce sounds naturally when strings are bowed or plucked, a tube has air instrument passed through it, or percussion instruments are struck Classical Music that has endured the test of time and requires a particular set of skills to perform or music appreciate it; it relies chiefly on acoustic instruments, preset musical notation, tends to be lengthy, and involves a variety of moods Encore French word meaning again; the repeat of a piece demanded by an appreciative audience; an extra piece added at the end of a concert Lyrics Text for a piece of music Motive A short, distinctive melodic figure that stands by itself [Beethoven Sym. 5; Intro CD/1: 0:00-0:02] Movement A large, independent section of a major instrumental work, such as a sonata, dance suite, symphony, quartet, or concerto Music Rational organization of sounds and silences passing through time Orchestra A large ensemble of acoustic instruments, also called a symphony orchestra Popular musicA broad category of music designed to please a large section of the general public; sometimes used in contradistinction to more serious or more learned classical music Symphony A genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also the orchestral ensemble that plays this genre Symphony orchestra The large instrumental ensemble that plays symphonies, overtures, concertos, and the like Tone poem (symphonic A onemovement work for orchestra of the Romantic era that gives musical expression to the emotions and events associated with a story, play, political occurrence, personal poem) experience, or encounter with nature Chapter 2: Rhythm Keywords Define Accent Emphasis or stress placed on musical tone or chord Beat An even pulse in music that divides the passing of time into equal segments Downbeat The first beat of each measure; it is indicated by a downward motion of the conductors () hand and is usually stressed Duple meter Two beats per measure, with every other beat emphasizedONE two, ONE two Measure (bar) A group of beats, or musical pulses; usually the number of beats is fixed and constant so that the measure serves as a continual unit of measurement in music Meter The gathering of beats into regular groups Meter signatureTwo numbers, one on top of the other, usually placed at the beginning of the music to (time signaturetell the performer what note value is carrying the beat and how the beats are to be grouped Pickup A note or two coming before the first downbeat of a piece, intending to give a little extra push into the downbeat [Verdi, La Traviata, Un di felice, CD 4/2 0:000:08] Quadruple meter Four beats per measure Quarter note A basic duration in music that normally moves along at roughly the rate of the average persons heartbeat Rhythm The organization of time in music, dividing up long spans of time into smaller, more easily comprehended units; gives shape to the profile of the melody Ritard A gradual slowing down of the tempo [Schubert, Erlking, CD3/14: 3:473:55] (abbr. of ritardando) Syncopation A rhythmic device in which the natural accent falling on a strong beat is displaced to a weak beat or between the beats Tempo The speed at which the beats occur in music Triple meter Three beats per measure, with every third beat emphasizedONE two three, ONE two three Upbeat The beat that occurs with the upward motion of the conductors hand and immediately () before the downbeat [Handel, Rejoice greatly, Messiah, CD 2/3 0:180:22] Chapter 3: Melody Keywords Define Antecedent The opening, incompletesounding phrase of a melody that cadences on a note other than phrase tonic; often followed by a consequent phrase that brings the melody to closure [Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, Intro CD/7; 0:490:57] Bass clef A sign placed on a staff to indicate the notes below middle C Chromatic scale A twelvenote scale in which all the pitches are only a halfstep apart Clef A sign used to indicate the register, or range of pitches, in which an instrument is to play or a singer is to sing Consequent The answering, second phrase of a twopart melodic unit that brings a melody to a point of phrase repose and closure [Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, IntroCD/7; 0:581:05] Flat (b) A musical symbol that lowers a pitch by a half step Grand staff A large musical staff that combines both the treble and the bass clefs Interval Distance between two pitches in music Key A tonal center built on a tonic note and making use of a scale; also, on a keyboard instrument, one of a series of levers that can be depressed to generate sound Key signature In musical notation, a preplaced set of sharps or flats used to indicate the scale and key Major scale A sevennote scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 11 1 11 Melody A series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive, recognizable musical unit; it is most often placed in the treble Minor scale A sevennote scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 1 11 11 Mode A pattern of pitches forming a scale; the two primary modes in Western music are major and minor Modulation The process in music whereby the tonal center changes from one key to another, from G major to C major, for example Natural In musical notation, a symbol that cancels a preexisting sharp or flat Octave The interval comprising the first and eighth tones of the major and minor diatonic scale; the sounds are quite similar because the frequency of vibration of the higher pitch is exactly twice that of the lower. Phrase A selfcontained portion of a melody, theme, or tune [Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, CD 1/20 0:000:04] Pitch The relative position, high or low, of a musical sound Scale An arrangement of pitches that ascends and descends in a fixed and unvarying pattern Sharp (#) A musical symbol that raises a pitch by a half step Staff A horizontal grid onto which are put the symbols of musical notation: notes, rests, accidentals, dynamic marks, etc. Tonality The organization of music around a central tone (the tonic) and the scale built on that tone The central pitch around which the melody and harmony gravitate; a chord built on the first Tonic degree of the scale; it is the most stable chord and the one toward which the other chords move Treble clef The sign placed on a staff to indicate the notes above middle C Chapter 4: Harmony Keywords Define Arpeggio The notes of a triad or seventh chord played in direct succession and in a direct line up or down Blues An expressive, soulful style of singing that emerged from the AfricanAmerican spiritual and work song at the end of the nineteenth century; its texts are strophic, its harmonies simple and repetitive Cadence The portion of a musical phrase that leads to its last chord Chord Two or more simultaneously sounding pitches Chord progression A succession of chords moving forward in a purposeful fashion Consonance Pitches sounding agreeable and stable Dissonance A discordant mingling of sounds, resulting in harmonic tension that ultimately seeks resolution Dominant The chord built on the fifth degree of the scale; tends to move to tonic triads at the ends of musical phrases Doowop A special kind of direct and repetitive urban soul music that emerged in the 1950s Harmony Sounds that provide the support and enrichmentan accompanimentfor melody Interval The distance between any two pitches on a musical scale Ostinato Any element of music that continually repeats The chord built on the fourth, or subdominant, degree of the major or minor scale; often Subdominant moves to the dominant chord Triad A chord consisting of three pitches and two intervals of a third Twelvebar The standard harmony of blues compositions that involves just three chords (tonic [1], blues subdominant [4], and dominant [5]) which spread out over twelve measures: 1111 4411 5415 Chapter 5: Dynamics and Color Keywords Define Forte In musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating loud Piano In musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating soft Sforzando A sudden, loud attack on one note or chord [Haydn, Symphony 94, second movement, Intro CD 22 0:170:33] Alt
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