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Chapter 1

PHI 1101 Chapter 1 Notes.docx

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Critical Thinking The systematic evaluation or formulation of beliefs or statements by rational standardsSystemic because it involves distinct procedures and methods not just gut feelings etcEvaluation and formulation used to assess existing beliefs and devise new onesRational standards beliefs are judged by how well they are supported by reasonsCritical Thinking as evaluation of beliefs and actionsFor problem solving decision making and persuasionWe will largely look at arguments both good and bad as a guide for evaluating our beliefs and actionsSources of BeliefFamily school friends media science country religion etc Each social institution has its own history which is nonetheless related to the othersElements of ReasoningChapter 1 Recognizing ArgumentsThree TasksDefine the concept of an argumentLearn to recognize argumentsIntroduce some standard terms1What is an ArgumentAn argument is a set of claims that can be divided into a conclusion and one or more premises 2Premise a claim put forth as a reason for a conclusion Or a claim given in support of another claimConclusion a claim meant to be supported by reasons offered in the argument Or a claim that premises are used to support
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