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Political Science
David Rangdrol

Impact of the institution of state sovereignty as imposed on and adapated in East AsiaThis institution was imposed on East Asia by the western powers and in the process East Asian institutions were reshaped and adapted to those of the principal states of the international systemWhere the international system does not directly regulate the internal structure of the states it does so indirectly through access to resources trade privileged and private and public capital flows and thus consolidates state elites and anchors the states institutions within its domestic societySocial constructivist approach to international relations focuses on how the international system constructs the stateThe international system not only determines international relations behaviour it also explicitly determines what is the state and what is state sovereigntyJames Rosenau defined the state as the norms governing relationships the habits of voluntary and coerced compliance and the practices of cooperation through which larged numbers of people form a collectivity that possesses sovereign authority over themNorms and sovereignty form a central axis of what defines a stateIdeas matterIdeas are embodied in institutionsThese institutions constrain actors by selecting leaders who conform to an approved agenda of views and who devise decision making rules to restrict choice within a limited range of recognized optionsOrganizations both create and channel information flowsThe central nexus of organized social thinking is the state backed up by the power and means to coerceOrganized coercive violence exemplifies the state as a social construction because coercion is only as effective as the social nexus that supports itRecognizing the coercive and exclusive character of the states recurrent reliance on violence is the context for the discussion of sovereignty the foundation of coercive authority in modern western thoughtThe East Asian encounter as a clash of institutionsth The encounter between the trading powers of the West and the East Asian polities in the mid 19century was a true clash of normative systems of civilizationsFaced with the technological and military power of the states of the capitalist West the institutions of the East Asian polities failedOpium Wars that began in 1839 usherd in a process of societal reconstruction and reformation of the international state systemEast Asian states accumulated power through adaptation to external norms By deploying external resources they transformed selective engagement with external agencies into institutional mechanisms for shaping societal outcomesThe elements that combined in the reconstitution of national polities and international relations in East Asia involved the organization and purpose of the state the relationship of the state to the economy and the interactions of states under capitalismFailure of China to mount an effective defence against Great Britain in 18391842 and later led to
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