PSY 1102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Macrophage, Psychoneuroimmunology, Biofeedback

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18 Oct 2014
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PSY1102- Chapter 12- Stress and Health (page 486-511)
Stress and Health:
- 85% of people report feeling stressed in the last three months- many said it
disrupted school work
- Stress strikes without warning
Basic Concepts:
- Stress is a slippery concept
- Stress: The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called
stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
- Arises less from events than from how we appraise them
- Stressors can have positive effects when short-lived or seen as challenges
oStress can mobilize immune systems
- Stress arouses/motivates us to conquer problems
- Prolonged/extreme stress can harm us
- There’s an interplay between heads and health
Stressors:
- 3 main types- catastrophes, significant life changes, daily hassles
- Catastrophes:
oUnpredictable large-scale events (wars, earthquakes, famines)
oAlmost always appraised as threatening
oEmotional and physical health is damaged
oResponding to catastrophe by moving has a twofold stress effect – stress
of uprooting combined w/ stress of new culture etc
- Significant Life Changes:
oEven happy events can be stressful
oMany changes happen during young adulthood
oHighest stress level is among young adults
oStudies have compared life changes to reported health problems
oExperiencing a cluster of crises puts people at a higher risk of death
- Daily Hassles:
oEvents don’t have to change our lives to cause stress
oSome people can ignored daily hassles
oDaily hassles can add up and take a toll on health
oThese stressors are well-known to people in impoverished areas
oProlonged stress affects the cardiovascular system
The Stress Response System:
- Walter Cannon- identified stress response system
- Stress response is part of a unified mind-body system
- Extreme cold, lack of oxygen, emotion-arousing events trigger epinephrine and
norepinephrine to be released
- The body becomes prepared for the ‘fight or flight response
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- Physiologists have identified another stress response system- the outer part of the
adrenal glands secrete cortisol when ordered by the cerebral cortex
- Two systems work at different speeds
- Stress is a major concept in psychology and medicine
- Selye- research stress to extend Cannons findings
oProposed that the body’s adaptive response to stress is so general that it
sounds no matter what intrudes
- General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive
response to stress in three phases- alarm, resistance, exhaustion
oSeen as a three phase process
oPhase 1- Alarm Reaction: Sympathetic nervous system is activated, ready
to fight back
oPhase 2- Resistance: Temperature, blood pressure, respiration are high,
Adrenal glands pump out hormones, you’re engaged to meet the challenge
oPhase 3- Exhaustion: Become more vulnerable to illness or collapse and
death
- Selyes Point- Although the body copes well w/ temporary stress, prolonged stress
can damage it
- There are ways to deal with stress
oWithdrawal- conserving energy – men more often withdraw
- Tend-and-befriend Response: Under stress, people (especially women) often
provide support to others and bond with and seek support from other
- Gender differences in stress – men are more likely to withdraw, woman respond
by nurturing and banding together – differences are found in brain scans
- Monetary stress- small cost
- Persistant Stress- pay a much higher price- lower resistance to infection and other
threats
Stress and Illness:
- Psychosomatic- Describes psychologically caused physical symptoms
oThe symptoms were unreal
oIn the near past
- Psychophysiological Illnesses: “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical
illness, such as hypertension and headaches
- Psychoneuroimmunology: The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine
processes together affect the immune system and health
oEmerged to study mind-body interactions
- The immune system keeps you healthy by isolating/destroying bacteria
- Four types of cells are used
- Two types of white blood cells- Lymphocytes and
- Lymphocytes: The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s
immune system- B Lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies
to fight bacterial infections; T Lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymph
atic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
- Microphage- identifies, pursures, and ingests harmful invaders/worn-out cells
- Natural Killer Cells: pursue diseased cells
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