PSY 1102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Heritability

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18 Oct 2014
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Psych Chapter 10- Intelligence:
What is Intelligence?
- Intelligence is a concept, not a thing
- Intelligence: Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience,
solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
- Intelligence Test: A method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and
comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
- Charles Spearman believed we have one general intelligence (G)
- General Intelligence (g): A general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman
and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every
task on an intelligence test
- Spearman granted that people have special abilities that stand out and he helped
develop factor analysis
- Factor Analysis: A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items
(factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that
underlie a person’s total score
- People who score high in one area typically score higher than average in other
areas
- A common skill set underlies all the intelligent behavior according to Spearman
- L. L Thurstone – one of Spearmans opponents
- Mental abilities may be likened to physical abilities
Gardner’s 8 Intelligences:
- Howard Gardner- views intelligence as multiple abilities that come in different
packages
- Savant Syndrome: A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental
ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
oOften score low on intelligence tests but have a specific area of brilliance
- Gardner argues that we have multiple intelligences rather than just one
- Critics say that there is a general intelligence factor that predicts performance on
certain tasks
- 8 Intelligences:
oNaturalist, Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-
Kinesthetic, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal
Sternbergs Three Intelligences:
- Agrees that there is more to success than traditional intelligence and proposes a
triarchic theory of 3 intelligences
- Analytical (Academic Problem-Solving) Intelligence: Assessed by intelligence
tests that predict school grades fairly well
- Creative Intelligence: Demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and
generating novel ideas
- Practical Intelligence: Required for everyday tasks, which are poorly defined with
multiple solutions
- Differing varieties of giftedness add spice to life, and challenges to education
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- There’s more to creativity than intelligence test scores
Intelligence and Creativity:
- Creativity: The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
- Studies suggest that certain aptitude levels support creativity
- Intelligence tests require convergent thinking, and creativity tests require
divergent thinking
- Sternberg identified 5 components of creativity:
1) Expertise: Well-developed base of knowledge that furnishes ideas, images, and
phrases we use as mental building blocks
2) Imaginative Thinking Skills: Provide the ability to see things in novel ways,
recognize patterns, and make connections
3) A Venturesome Personality: Seeks new experiences, tolerates ambiguity/risk,
preservers in overcoming obstacles
4) Intrinsic Motivation: Being driven more by interest, satisfaction, and challenge
than by external pressures
5) Creative Environment: Sparks, supports, refines creative ideas
- In order to boost the creative process: Develop expertise, allow time for
incubation, set aside time for the mind to freely roam, experience other cultures
and ways of thinking
Emotional Intelligence:
- Social intelligence- know-how involved in successfully understanding social
situations
- Emotional Intelligence: The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use
emotions
oAspect of social intelligence
- Four Emotional Intelligence Components:
oPerceiving emotions
oUnderstanding emotions
oManaging emotions
oUsing emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking
- Emotional intelligence is a matter of unconscious processing of emotional
information
Brain Size and Complexity:
- Associations between intelligence and brain size and activity in certain areas
- Intelligence has ample gray matter and white matter – makes efficient
communication between brain centers
Brain Function:
- Scans reveal that smarter people use less energy to solve problems
- Positive correlation between intelligence score and speed of taking in perceptual
information
Assessing Intelligence:
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