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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Learning textbook summary
Chapter 7 Learning textbook summary

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University of Ottawa

Chapter 7 Learning LearningA relatively permanent behaviour change due to experience How do we learnJohn Locke David Hume we learn by associationAssociative learning learning that certain events occur together The events may be two stimuli classical conditioning or a response and its consequences as in operant conditioningLearned associations also feed our habitual behaviour Conditioning is the process of learning associationsClassical conditioning we learn to associate two stimuli thus to anticipate events Two related events stimulus 1 lighteningstimulus 2 thunder result after repetition stimulus we see lightening response we wince anticipating thunderOperant conditioning we learn to associate a response and its consequence and thus to repeat acts followed by results and avoid acts followed by bad results ex response balancing a ball consequence receiving food behaviour strengthenedObservational learning learn from others experiencesWe learn to expect and prepare for significant events such as food or pain classical We also learn to repeat acts that bring good results and to avoid acts that bring bad results operant By watching others we learn new behaviour observational Classical conditioningPavlovA type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate eventsIvan Pavlov rings a bell Foundation for John B Watsons Behaviourism Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behaviour Behaviourism the view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behaviour without reference to mental processes Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2 Pavlovs ExperimentPutting food in a dogs mouth caused the animal to salivate Isolated dog in small room and attached a device to divert its saliva to a measuring instrumentNeutral events something the dog could see or hear but didnt associate with food with food in the dogs mouth Salivation in response to food in the mouth was unlearnedunconditioned responseFood stimulusunconditioned stimulus Before conditioning US FOOD Neutral stimulus Tone no salivation neutral stimulus toneUS food CStone CRsalivationUSair puff URblink to air puff CStone after procedure CR blink to toneMajor 5 Conditioning processes1Acquisition initial learning of the stimulusresponse relationship Pavlov had to confront the question of timing how much time should elapse between presenting the neutral stimulus the tone the light the touch and the unconditioned stimulus Conditioning helps an animal survive and reproduce by responding to cues that help it gain food avoid dangers locate mates and produce offspring
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