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Chapter 2

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Psychology 1101Chapter 2 Biology of the Mind biological psychology branch concerned with the links between biology and behaviour the nervous system function and structure everything psychological is physiological 2 major divisions Central nervous system CNSbrain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system PNSnerves outside of CNS both are highly specialized and work together as a single unit communication network receives information from both internal and external world organizes and integrates with existing information use information in order to send messages to muscles EX controlling movements conscious experience awareness of ourselvesenvironmentneurons basic function and structure of neurons basic unit of communication 3 types sensory neuronscollect info from external world and send to CNS EX eyes tongue skin motor neuronscarry messages from CNS to musclesglands interneuronsonly found in CNS and only communicate with other neurons out number other types of neurons complex joborganizeintegrate information basic structure cell bodysoma nucleus of cell DNA manufactures all neuron needs to survive growand repair itself dendrites thin structures extend from cell body increase surface area of somareceive messages from other neurons bushy branching extension of a neuron axons thin tubelike structure carries messages from soma to other neuroncarries electrical impulses axons speak dendrites listen terminal buttons release the neurotransmitter little buttons at the end of axon branches myelin sheath white fatty substance that covers buttons speed up transmission ofmessage insulates axons if it degeneratesmultiple sclerosis eventual loss of muscle control thresholdlevel of stimulation required to trigger neural impulse synapse place where neurons meet to communicate synaptic cleftgap tiny gap in synapse found between two neurons less than a millionth of an inch wide presynaptic neuron neuron sending out the message
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