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PSY1101 (252)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 the biology of the mind.doc

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Najwa Haddad

Chapter 2 The Biology of the Mind The Nervous System1 Function and StructureNervous SystemCentral Nervous System CNS brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS all nerves in the body motor sensory etcthese 2 systems have different tasks but any behaviour requires integration of the CNS and PNSthe NS is a communication networkit receives info from the sensesorganizes and integrates info and analysis in a meaningful manneruses new and existing information to send out messages to muscles and glands allowing for production of behaviours and produces movement it creates conscious experience awareness perceptions feelings etc everything psychological is physiological 2 NeuronsA Basic Function and Structure of the Neuronneurons are the basic unit of communication in the nervous system1 trillion neurons in the bodythere are 10 000 types of neurons in the body all categorized into 3 major typesthe 3 major types correspond to 3 major functions of the NSa Sensory Neuronsreceives information from sensory organs and sends information to CNS via nervesb Interneuronsonly found in CNScommunicates with other neuronscarries messages between neuronsorganizes and integrates informationhas the most complex jobc Motor Neuronscarries messages from the brain and spinal cord to musclesglands via nervesThe Basic Structurea Cell Body soma contains the nucleus and DNA it manufactures everything the neuron needs to survive and growb Dendritesthin tubelike structuresincreases surface area of somareceives information from other neuronsc Axoncarries action potential electrical impulsenerve impulse to axon branchesd Axon Branchesknoblike structure at the end of the axon branches called terminal buttonsaxon terminals e Myelin Sheathsome axons are covered in myelin sheath a fattylike substanceprovides insulation to the axonspeeds up transmission of action potential20x faster than axons without myelin sheathmultiple sclerosis myelin sheath is destroyedf Synapsewhere neurons meet to communicate with each otherg Synaptic CleftGaptiny gap between 2 neurons at the synapseh PreSynaptic Neuronneuron that is sending a message to another neuroni PostSynaptic Neuronneuron that receives message from another neuronB CommunicationB1 Communication Within a Neuronthe brain is made up of 80 waterwater inside the cell is called intracellular fluidextracellular fluidwater outside the cell is called water contains dissolved chemicals in it kind of like sea waterNa Cl K A proteins anions dissolved chemicals haveorchargesNa Cl K are found in different concentrations inside and outside the cell
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