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Chapter 8

Chapter 8.docx

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Gustavo Gottret

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Chapter 8: Socio-Emotional Development in Childhood The Self Initiative versus Guilt -according to Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is initiative versus guilt -at this point, children are convinced that they are their own persons; during early childhood, children use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen and they have the energy to approach new areas that seem desirable -the governor of initiative is conscience -at this point, children feel afraid of being found out, but also begin to hear the inner voice of self-observation, self-guidance, and self-punishment -their initiative may bring them rewards, as well as punishment -widespread disappointment at this stage may lead to feelings of guilt that lowers the child's self esteem Self-Understanding -involves the representation of self, the substance and content of self-conceptions -self-understanding provides the rational underpinnings to our personal identity -early self-understanding involves self-recognition; young children think that the self can be described by many material characteristics (i.e.: size, shape, and color) and distinguish themselves from others through many physical and material attributes -in sum, in early childhood, children often describe themselves in terms of body image, material possessions, and physical activities Understanding Others -during early childhood, young children's theory of mind includes understanding that other people have emotions and desires -later, children not only start describing themselves in terms of psychological traits, but they also begin to perceive others in terms of psychological traits (e.g.: my teacher is nice) -individual differences in terms of understanding what people are feeling and what they desire are linked to conversations caregivers have with young children about other people's feelings and desires, and children's opportunities to observe others talking about people's feelings and desires Emotional Development -children develop a better understanding of emotions in early childhood because of greater cognitive skills, knowledge of the self, and social interactions in this age Self-Conscious Emotions -to experience self-conscious emotions (other than things like joy and fear), children must be able to refer to themselves and be aware of themselves as distinct from others -e.g.: pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt -self-conscious emotions do not appear to develop until self-awareness appears -emotions like pride and guilt, become more common as they are influenced by parents' responses to children's behaviour -girls showed more shame and pride than boys Emotion Language and Understanding of Emotion -there is an increased use of emotion language and the understanding of emotion -preschoolers become more adept at talking about their own and others' emotions -at 2 and 3, children increase the number of terms they use to describe to emotion and are also learning about the causes of consequences of feelings -at 4 and 5, children show an increased ability to reflect on emotions and understand that the same event can elicit different feelings in different people -they show a growing awareness of the need to control and manage emotions to meet social standards -the acquisition of the understanding of some emotions does not go from a complete lack of comprehension to full knowledge; rather, the path is gradual Shyness -there are 2 conditions of preschoolers who tended to withdraw from peer interaction -conflicted shyness refers to high anxiety toward social interactions -social disinterest refers to anxiety while socializing with peers - they simply to prefer to be on their own -a mother's overprotective tendency is related to the son's (not the daughter's) conflicted shyness -neither perceived competence nor maternal over-protectiveness is related to social disinterest -shyness can lead to higher risk of maladjustment for shy boys than for shy girls Emotion-Coaching and Emotion-Dismissing Parents -parents can be described as taking an emotion-coaching or an emotion-dismissing approach -emotion-coaching parents monitor their children's emotions, view their children's negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in labelling emotions, and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions -emotion-dismissing parents deny, ignore, or change negative emotions -emotion-coaching parents are less rejecting, use more scaffolding and praise, and are more nurturing than are emotion-dismissing parents -children of emotion-coaching parents were better at soothing themselves when they got upset, more effective in regulating their negative effect, focused their attention better, and had fewer behaviour problems than children of emotion-dismissing parents Regulation of Emotion and Peer Relations -emotions determine the success of a child's peer relationships -moody and emotionally negative children experience greater reject by peers -emotionally positive children are more positive Moral Development -many developmentalists believe that parents must nurture goodness and help their children develop morally -moral development involves the development of thoughts, behaviours, and feelings regarding standards of right and wrong Moral Feelings -feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development provided by Freud's psychoanalytic theory -to reduce anxiety, avoid punishment, and maintain parental affection, children identify with parents, internalize their standards of right and wrong, and thus form the superego, the moral element of personality -infants have the capacity for some purely empathic responses, but empathy often requires the ability to discern another's internal psychological states, or what is called perspective talking -learning how to identify a wide range of emotional states in others and to anticipate what kinds of action will improve another person's emotional state help to advance children's moral development Moral Reasoning -children think in 2 distinctly different ways about morality; 1) Heteronomous Morality -occurs from approximately 4 to 7 years of age -justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people -heteronomous thinkers believe that rules are unchangeable and are handed down by all- powerful authorities -believes in imminent justice, which is the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately -the child believes that a violation is connected automatically to its punishment 2) Autonomous Morality -is displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older) -the child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences -recognize that rules are merely convenient, socially agreed-upon conventions, subject to change by consensus -children age 7 to 10 are in a transition between the 2 stages and show features of both -preschoolers are heteronomous moralists and judge the rightness or goodness of behaviour by considering the consequences of the behaviour, not the intentions of the actor -for the moral autonomist, the reverse is true; the actor's intentions assume paramount importance -according to Piaget, as children develop, they become more sophisticated in thinking about social matters, especially about the possibilities and conditions of cooperation -peer groups and their give-and-take relations give all members similar power and status, so plans are negotiated and coordinated and disagreements are reasoned about and eventually settled -parent-child relations are less likely to advance moral reasoning because rules are handed down in an authoritarian way Moral Behaviour -behaviour is as important as thinking when it comes to moral development -the processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation can explain the development of moral behaviour -when children are rewarded for behaviour that is consistent with laws and social conventions, they are likely to repeat that behaviour in the same situation; after punishment, the target behaviour is likely to be reduced in the same situation -what children do in one situation is often only weakly related to what they do in other situations -the ability to resist temptation is closely tied to the development of self-control -to achieve self-control, children must learn to delay gratification Conscience -refers to an integral regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves an integration of all 3 components of moral development (i.e.: moral though, feeling, and behaviour) -young children are aware of right and wrong, have the capacity to show empathy toward others, experience guilt, indicate discomfort following a transgression, and are sensitive to violating rules -a major focus is the children's relationship with their caregivers and the willingness to embrace the values of their parents that flows form a positive, close relationship Parenting and Young Children's Moral Development -Piaget and Kohlberg: parents do not provide unique or essential inputs to children's moral development -parents are responsible for providing role-taking opportunities and cognitive conflict, but peers play the primary role in moral development -modern research shows that both parents and peers contribute to children's moral maturity -young children are moral apprentices, striving to understand what is moral -they can be assisted by the sensitive guidance of adult mentors in the home who provide lessons about morality in everyday experiences -important aspects of the relationship between parents and children that contribute to moral development are relational quality, parental discipline, proactive strategies, and conversational dialogue -secure attachment is important in that it can place the child on a positive path for internalizing the parents' socializing goals and family values -early mutually-responsive orientation between parents and their infant and a decrease in parents' use of power assertion in disciplining a young child were linked to an increase in the child's internalization and self-regulation -e.g.: being proactive (using diversion for young children or talking about important values to older children) Gender What is Gender? -sex refers to the biological dimension of being male or female -gender refers to the social and psychological dimensions of being male or female -gender identity is the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old -gender role is a set of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, and feel Biological Influences -biology plays a role in sex development 1) Chromosomes -males start to differ from females when genes on the Y chromosome in the male embryo trigger development of testes rather than ovaries -the testes secrete hormones known as androgens, which lead to the development of the male sex organs -low levels of androgen sin the female embryo allow the normal development of female sex organs -hormones are important in producing sex differences -the 2 main classes of sex hormones are estrogens and androgens, which are secreted by the gonads (ovaries in the female, testes in males) -estrogens such as estradiol influence the development of female physical sex characteristics -androgens such as testosterone promote the development of male physical sex characteristics 2) Evolutionary Psychology View -according to evolutionary psychology, adaptation during human evolution has produced psychological differences between males and females -because of their differing roles in reproduction, males and females faced differing pressures when the human species was evolving -e.g.: natural selection favours males who adopt short-term mating strategies that allow them to win a competition with other males for sexual access to females and have evolved dispositions that favour violence, competition, and risk-taking -e.g.: females' contributions to the gene pool are improved when they secure resources that ensure the survival of their offspring and so natural selection favours females who devote effort to parenting and choose successful, ambitious mates who can provide their offspring with resources and protection -critics say that evolutionary psychology are backed by speculations about prehistory and people are not locked into behaviour that was adaptive in the evolutionary past; as well, evolutionary view pays little attention to cultural and individual variances in gender differences Social Influences -gender differences are due to social experiences 1) Social Theories of Gender -there are 3 main social theories of gender a) Social Role Theory -states that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men -in most cultures, women have less power and status and control fewer resources than men do -as women adapted to roles with less power and less status, they showed more cooperative, less dominant profiles than men -social hierarchies cause gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurture b) Psychoanalytic Theory of Gender -stems from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent -at 5 or 6, the child renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings; subsequently, the child identifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same-sex parent's characteristics -developmentalists argue that children become gender-typed much earlier than 5 or 6 and they become masculine or feminine even when the same-sex parent is not present in the family c) Social Cognitive Theory of Gender -explains that children's gender development occurs through observing and imitating what other people say and do, and through being rewarded and punished for gender-appropriate and gender- inappropriate behaviour Parental Influences -parents influence their children's gender development -many parents encourage boys and girls to engage in different types of play and activities -e.g.: girls are more likely than boys to be given dolls to play with and girls are encouraged to be more nurturing than boys are -children's rough-and-tumble play occurred more frequently in father-son relationships than in father-daughter relationships; fathers are more likely to engage in this type of play than mothers -parents may be inadvertently acting as models of the stereotypical male and female Peer Influences -peers extensively reward and punish gender-appropriate behaviour; peers often reject children who act in a manner that is considered to be more characteristic of the other sex -gender influences the composition of children's groups, the size of groups, and interactions within a group -gender composition of children's groups: children show a preference to spend time with same-sex playmates early on in life -this preference increases from 4 to 12 and during the elementary school years, children spend a large majority of their free time with children of the same sex -group size: boys are more likely to associate together in larger clusters than girls -girls are more likely to play in dyads or triads -boys are more likely to interact in larger groups and seek to attain a group goal -interaction in same-sex groups: boys are more likely to engage in rough-and-tumble play, competition, conflict, ego displays, risk taking, and seeking in dominance -girls are more likely to engage in "collaborative discourse" in which they talk and act in a more reciprocal manner Cognitive Influences -observation, imitation, rewards, and punishment are the mechanisms by which gender develops according to social cognitive theory -interactions between the child and the social environment are the main keys to gender development in this view -social cognitive theory is said to pay too little attention to the child's own mind and understanding and portrays the child as passively acquiring gender roles -gender schema theory states that gender-typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture -a schema is a cognitive structure (a network of associations that guide an individual's perceptions) -gender schema organizes the world in terms of female and male -children are internally motivated to perceive the world and to act in accordance with their developing schemas -children pick up what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture and develop gender schemas that shape how they perceive the world and what they remember -children are motivated to act in ways that conform with these gender schemas -therefore, gender schemas fuel gender typing Parenting Parenting Styles -BAUMRIND: parents should be neither punitive (disciplinary/retaliatory) nor aloof (detached/distant); they should develop rules for their children and be affectionate with them 1) Authoritarian Parenting -is a restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort -the authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange -e.g.: "You do it my way or else" -may enforce rules rigidly but not explain them -may show rage toward the child -children of this type of parenting are often unhappy, fearful, and anxious about comparing themselves with others, fail to initiate activity, and have weak communication skills 2) Authoritative Parenting -encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions -extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed -parents are warm and nurturing toward the child -e.g.: "You know you should not have done that. Let's talk about how you can handle the situation better next time." -authoritative parents show pleasure and support of children's constructive behaviour -parents expect independent and age-appropriate behaviour from children -children often become cheerful, self-controlled and self-reliant, and achievement oriented; they maintain friendly relations with peers, cooperate with adults, and cope well with stress 3) Neglectful Parenting -a style in which the parent is very uni
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