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Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY2114
Professor
Gustavo Gottret

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Chapter 12: Socio-Emotional Development in Adolescence Self-Esteem and Identity Development -self-esteem is the overall way we evaluate ourselves and it is also referred to as self-image or self-worth Self-Esteem -adults characterized by poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behaviour were more likely to have low self-esteem in adolescence than their better adjusted, more competent adult counterparts -self-esteem of girls is likely to decline at least somewhat during early adolescence -an explanation is girls' negative body images during pubertal change; many young girls try to emulate media changes -as well, young adolescent girls start having greater interest in social relationships and society fails to reward that interest Identity -identity refers to our self-portraits that develop over our lifetime and are made up of many components, including negations and affirmations of various roles and characteristics -the most comprehensive and provocative theory of identity development is Erik Erikson's -identity is a self-portrait composed of many pieces that include: -vocational / career identity -the career and work path a person wants to follow -political identity -whether a person is conservative, liberal, or centrist -religious identity -a person's spiritual beliefs -relationship identity -whether a person is single, married, divorced, and so on -achievement / intellectual identity -the extent to which the person is motivated to achieve and is intellectual -sexual identity -whether a person is heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual -cultural / ethnic identity -the part of the world or country a person is from and how intensely the person identifies with the cultural heritage -interest -the kind of things a person likes to do (i.e.; sports, music, hobbies, etc.) -personality -the individual's personality characteristics, such as being introverted or extroverted, anxious or calm, friendly or hostile, etc. -physical identity -the individual's body image -synthesizing the identity components can be a long and draw-out process -identity development gets done in bits and pieces -decisions are not made once and for all Eric Erikson -Erikson believed that adolescence was a time when individuals are interested in finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are headed in life -the search for an identity is aided by a psychosocial moratorium, which is Erikson's term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy -during this period, society leaves adolescents relatively free of responsibilities and free to try out different identities -adolescents experiment with different roles and personalities -e.g.: may change career paths, change their handwriting or signature, etc. -this experimentation is a deliberate effort on the part of the adolescents to find out where they fit in the world -youth who successfully cope with conflicting identities emerge with a new sense of self that is both refreshing and acceptable -adolescents who do not successfully resolve this identity crisis suffer from identity confusion -individuals withdraw and isolate themselves from peers and family OR -they immerse themselves in the world of peers and lose their identity in the crowd Identity Development -identity development is a lengthy process; it is more gradual and less catacylsmic than Erikson's term "crisis" implies -identity development is extraordinarily complex -identity formation neither begins nor ends with adolescence -identity is a life-long process -it begins with the emergence of independence in infancy and it reaches its final phase with a life review and integration in old age -what is important about identity in adolescence is that for the first time, physical development, cognitive development, and social development advance to the point at which the individual can sort through and integrate childhood identities and identifications to construct a reasonable pathway toward adult maturity -resolution of the identity issue at adolescence does not mean that identity will be stable throughout the remainder of one's life -a person who develops a healthy identity is flexible, adaptive, and open to changes in society, in relationships, and careers; this openness assures numerous reorganizations of identity features throughout the life of the person who has achieved identity -identity involves commitment to a vocational direction, an ideological stance, and a sexual orientation at a bare minimum -over the years of adolescence, the decisions begin to form a core of what the individual is all about as a person - the identity James Marcia's Identity Statuses and Development -Eriksonian researcher James Marcia reasons that Erikson's theory of identity development contains 4 statuses of identity, or ways of resolving identity crisis: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement -Marcia classifiesindividuals based on the existence or extent of their crisis or commitment -crisis is defined as a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives; most researchers use the word exploration rather than crisis -commitment is personal investment in identity -the 4 statuses of identity are: 1) Identity Diffusion -occurs when individuals have not yet experienced a crisis (they have not yet explored meaningful alternatives) or made any commitments -not only are they undecided about occupational and ideological choices, but they are also likely to show little interest in such matters 2) Identity Foreclosure -occurs when individuals have made a commitment but have not yet experienced a crisis -this occurs most often when parents hand down commitments to their adolescents, usually in an authoritarian manner -adolescents have not had adequate opportunities to explore different approaches, ideologies, and vocations on their own 3) Identity Moratorium -occurs when individuals are in the midst of a crisis but their commitments are either absent or vaguely defined 4) Identity Achievement -occurs when individuals have undergone a crisis, and have made a commitment Emerging Adulthood and Beyond -key changes in identity are more likely to take place in emerging adulthood -e.g.: from the years preceding high school through to the last few years of college, the number of individuals who are identity achieved increases, whereas the number who are identity confused decreases -college upperclassmen are more likely to be identity achieved than college freshman -many young adolescents are identity diffused -in terms of religious beliefs and political ideology, fewer college students reach the identity-achieved status and a number are characterized by foreclosure and diffusion -the timing of identity development may depend on the particular dimension involved -one of emerging adulthood's themes is not having many social commitments, which gives individuals considerable independence in developing a life path -thus, developing a positive identity in emerging adulthood requires self-discipline and planning -without self-discipline, emerging adults are likely to drift and not follow any particular direction -emerging adults who obtain higher education are more likely to be on a positive identity path; those who do not obtain higher education are more likely to experience job changes because they are trying to make a living in a society that rewards higher education -resolution of the identity issue during adolescence and emerging adulthood does not mean that identity will be stable through the remainder of life -many individuals who develop positive identities follow the MAMA cycles; their identity status changes from moratorium to achievement to moratorium to achievement -these cycles may be repeated throughout life Bingham and Stryker's Reworking of Erikson -Erikson's discussion of identity development showed the division of labour between genders and this was reflected in his assertion that males' aspirations were mainly oriented toward career and ideological comments, while females' were centred around marriage and child-bearing -the predicament facing men once their identity was resolved was that of intimacy versus isolation -in the past 2 decades, as women have developed stronger vocational interests, gender differences are turning into gender similarities -consequently, women, like men, need to become independent emotionally and financially -some believe that the order of stages proposed by Erikson is different for females and males -for males, identity formation precedes the stage of intimacy -for females, intimacy precedes identity -these ideas are consistent with the belief that relationships and emotional bonds are more important concerns of females, while autonomy and achievement are more important concerns of males -the manner in which each stage is resolved in adulthood differs for contemporary men and women, with the role of work and relationship satisfaction being an equally important consideration in the resolution of Erikson's 7th stage in middle adulthood, generativy and stagnation, for both men and women -boys and girls develop differently -Bingham and Stryker suggest that there may be a tendency to socialize girls to be more acquiescent and dependent and to socialize boys to be achievers and independent, which influences the successful resolution of this stage as well as further development -teens deal with identity versus role confusion and the successful outcome of identity rests in the sense of development of self in relation to internal thoughts and desires -Erikson believed that the formation of a social identity and a personal identity that focuses on abilities, possibilities, and goals precedes the ability to make long-term commitments to relationships -Bingham and Stryker say that the predicament now facing young adults is one of emotional and financial autonomy -they suggest the 3 Cs of hardy personality: control commitment, and challenge -these are the foundations of socio-emotional development for girls -the feeling of being responsible for one's own actions and in control of one's own life is essential to the development of a hardy personality -people with hardy personalities are able to take credit or blame for their present circumstances and move on -self-esteem for girls drops significantly more than it does for boys -consequently, a decade may pass before girls focus on achievement -thus, in the stage of early adulthood, the resolution of the crisis intimacy versus isolation may be regarded as the crisis of emotional and financial self-sufficiency verses dependency -to resolve this crisis, one must develop a hardy personality by acquiring and cultivating 8 specific skills: 1) Recognize and tolerate anxiety, and act right away 2) Separate fantasy from reality, and tackle reality 3) Set goals and establish priorities 4) Project into the future, and understand how today's choices affect the future 5) Discriminate, and make choices consistent with goals and values 6) Set boundaries and limits 7) Ask assertively for wants and desires 8) Trust self and own perceptions -because boys are socialized to become self-sufficient, the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy -girls are expected to establish relationships and so the female crisis is autonomy in terms of taking care of herself emotionally and financially Elkind's Age of Dynamisms -as adolescents reconcile their sense of self, they often employ age dynamism; they wish to put as much distance between their more sophisticated teenage self and their childish or juvenile self of the past -in distancing themselves, individuals recognize a certain level of continuity about themselves -e.g.: they still have the same birthmark, the same eye color, etc. -as children move through Piaget's stages of cognitive development, they become more sophisticated in understanding the persistence or continuity of their personal identities and the identities of others -this understanding is strongly influenced by cultural background -Aboriginal youth run higher risks of suicide because in their quest for personal identity, their past and present narratives reflect not only the typical struggle, but also the loss of a culture that has been scorned and devalued Families -families provide the first source of information about the world -family shapes humour, understanding of right and wrong, notions of common sense, and sense of self -families provide models that the emerging adult considers, accepts, or rejects -attachment, autonomy, and conflict are typical as adolescents assert their independence from their families Family Influences -parents are important figures in the adolescent's development of identity -a family atmosphere should promote both individuality and connectedness -individuality consists of 2 dimensions: self-assertion (the ability to have and communicate a point of view) and separateness (the use of communication patterns to express how one is different from others) -connectedness consists of 2 dimensions: mutuality (involves the sensitivity to and respect for other's views) and permeability (openness to other's views) -identity formation is enhanced by family relationships that are both individuated, which encourage adolescents to develop their own point of view, and connected, which provide a secure base from which to explore the widening social worlds of adolescence -when connectedness is strong and individuation is weak, adolescents often have identity foreclosure status -when connectedness is weak, adolescents often reveal identity confusion -parents set the tone and stage for discussion about ideas and situations their adolescent may be experiencing -competent adolescent development is likely to occur when adolescents have parents who: -show them warmth and respect -demonstrate sustained interest in their lives -recognize and adapt to their cognitive and socio-emotional development -communicate expectations for high standards of conduct and achievement -display constructive ways of dealing with problems and conflict Autonomy and Attachment -securely attached adolescents were less likely than those who were insecurely attached to join gangs, become offenders, or use drugs and had better peer relations than their insecurely attached counterparts, as well as being able to better resolve conflicts -correlations between adolescent-parent attachments and adolescent outcomes are moderate; parent-adolescent attachment does not necessarily guarantee success or failure in peer relationships -some adolescents from strong, supportive families may still struggle in peer relations and others adolescents from troubled families find a positive start with peer relations -the ability to attain autonomy and gain control over one's behaviour in adolescence is acquired through appropriate adult reactions to adolescent's desire for control -at the onset of adolescence, the average individual does not have the knowledge to make appropriate or mature decisions in all areas of life -as the adolescent pushes for autonomy, the wise adult relinquishes control in those areas in which the adolescent can make reasonable decisions but continues to guide the adolescent to make reasonable decisions in areas that the adolescents have limited knowledge in -gradually, adolescents acquire the ability to make mature decisions on their own -gender differences characterize autonomy granting in adolescence -boys are given more independence than girls; this is especially true in families with a traditional gender-role orientation Balancing Freedom and Control -cultural differences characterize adolescent autonomy -e.g.: North American adolescents sought autonomy earlier than Japanese adolescents -a philosophical variation among cultures is locus of control (the perceived extent to which individuals believe they have control over the events that affect them) -some cultures favour an external locus of control wherein events that affect individuals are considered to be the result of fate or higher powers -e.g.: individuals may believe that an illness is the result of fate and must be surrendered to honourably -North American cultures have an internal locus of control and believe that the individual can control life events -e.g.: individuals may believe they have control over and can cure the disease Parent-Adolescent Conflict -conflict exists and involves the everyday events of family life (i.e.: keeping room clean, dressing neatly, getting home by a certain time, etc.) -conflicts serve a positive developmental function -the minor disputes and negotiations facilitate the adolescent's transition from being dependent on parents to becoming an autonomous individual -e.g.: adolescents who expressed disagreement with their parents explored identity development more actively than did adolescents who did not express disagreement -the new model of parent-adolescent relationships emphasize that parents serve as important attachment figures and support systems while adolescents explore a wider, more complex social world -in this model, parent-adolescent conflict is moderate rather than severe, and that the everyday negotiations and minor disputes not only are normal, but serve the positive developmental function of helping the adolescent make the transition from childhood dependency to adult independence -the old model suggested that as adolescents mature, they detach themselves from parents and move into a world of autonomy apart from parents; as well, conflict was intense and stressful throughout adolescence Peers -peer relations undergo important changes in adolescence, including changes in friendships and in peer groups and the beginning of romantic relationships -the focus of peer relations is on being liked by classmates and being included in games or lunchroom conversations -being overlooked or rejected can have damaging effects on children's development that sometimes is carried forward to adolescence Religion Religious and Spiritual Development -surveys show a downward trend in religious interest among Christian adolescents but a rise in interest in other religions such as Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism Religion and Identity Development -adolescents and emerging adults begin to grapple in more sophisticated, logical ways -adolescence and adulthood can serve as gateways to a spiritual identity that transcends, but not necessarily excludes, the assigned religious identity in childhood The Positive Role of Religion in Adolescents' Lives -various aspects of religion are linked with positive outcomes for adolescents as well as in adolescent's health and whether they engage in problem behaviours -those who were more religious were less likely to smoke, drink alcohol, use marijuana, skip school, etc. -religious involvement may be linked to social competence like positive peer relations, academic achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviour, self-esteem, etc. -many religious adolescents internalize their religion's message about caring and concern for people Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Identity -recall that context is the setting in which development occurs -the setting is influenced by historical, political, economic, geographic, social, and cultural factors -race refers to physical features such as a skeletal structure, the shape of the skull, the texture of the hair, and the colour of the skin -visible minority refers to people who identify themselves as neither Native nor Caucasian -i.e.: Asian, African, Irish, Muslim, Christian, Islamic, etc. -ethnicity is based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language -i.e.: Iroquois, Metis, Inuit, etc. -culture refers to the behaviour patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group, including favourite recipes, that are passed on from generation to generation -i.e.: East Coast have different
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