*this chapter is about macro (large-scale), meso (organizational), and micro (individual) level based questions regarding social movements and collective action. Theorists attempt to connect these different levels of analysis in their explanations of social movements and collective action. *movements typically don"t suddenly emerge, and new ones often linked to previous ones. *mobilization: the process whereby a group that shares grievances or interests gains collective control over resources. *recruitment: part of the broader process of mobilization. Both are ongoing processes rather than one-time events. *factors involved: large-scale socioeconomic and political changes, opportunities and threats, critical events, pre-existing or emergent organizations, leaders, resources, frames. Theorists point to importance of large-scale social changes in stimulating social movements. American civil rights movement (decline of cotton as a cash crop), migration of many southern blacks to cities. *two important factors: resources controlled by a group, and extent of organization among members prior to movement mobilization.