Biology and Evolution.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Semester
Winter

Description
Biology and evolution A brief history of the development of thought on human evolution Fundamental question of human experience 1. Origin myths –All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origin of  humans ­Universal explanations ­How humans came into existence ­Relationship of humans and other animals ­How humans are the ultimate products of creation 2. Fixity of species ­Species, once created can never change ­Reflected powerful religious system in Europe ­Accepted that all living things created by God ­purported that the way we exist today is the way we appear when  humans were first ‘created’ 3. Great Chain of Being ­1  proposed by Aristotle in 4  century BC ­All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex ­Importance: places humans within a continuum of other organisms ­Humans at top of hierarchy ­still adheres to fixity of species th 4. Genus and species – John Ray, 17  century ­Saw that certain plants and animals could be distinguished from other groups by  their ability to reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring ­Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called  ‘species’ ­recognized that some species shared similarities called ‘genus’ ­species: group of organisms that can successfully reproduce 5. Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735 ­Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories ­used binomial nomenclature ­standardized Ray’s species and genus, and added class and order ­still adheres to creationist ‘fixity of species’ 6. Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833 ­processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform  and continuous in nature ­Set time scale of the earth is in millions of years (when once the earth was sought  to be thousands of years old) ­Creationist ­Recognized cy
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