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Chapter 11-13

Chapter 11 - 13 Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sherry Fukuzawa

Chapter 11: Cultivation and Domestication - Neolithic period o Began 11000 years ago in Southwest asia when first domesticated plants appear; in East was when pottery began Post Glacial Roots of Farming and Pastoralism - 12000 years ago glaciers started melting sea levels mammoths disappeared for ever due to warm climate - new forests emerged in the North, hunter was harder o had to kill a variety of smaller birds and animals - rising plant food was more abundant and new sources of fish - some called it Mesolithic (Middle stone age) others called it Epipalaeolithic (refer to by Near East) Early Postglacial Tools and Weapons - effective axes and adzes - less prone to breakage under heavy duty - ground stone tools easier to sharpen o helped clear out forest o create canoes and boats - deadliest weapon was the bow and arrow with microlith arrowhead - made sickles, harpoons, arrows and daggers - pottery manufacturing o oldest dates between 17000 and 15000 years ago in Japan o proper firing is tricky as the object must be heated sufficiently that the clay will harden and resist disintegration from moisture o brought about new food preparation and storage methods o food can be boiled in pottery vessels o social group membership can be designed on pottery by paint Cultural Diversity in Postglacial Period - Natufian culture o Epipalaeolithic culture of Israel, Lebanon and Syria between about 12500 and 10200 years ago o Dead buried in communal cemeteries o Have storage pits beneath the floors of houses indicates earliest known Epipalaeolithic people known to have stored plant foods - Archaic culture o Refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas o Maritime Archaic culture Centered on Gulf of St Lawrence Hunted swordfish Developed first known elaborate burial ceremonialism in North America www.notesolution.com o Shellmounds: extensive deposit of refuse including quantities of shell left behind by people o Domesticate plants such as marsh elder and sunflower o Low level food producers: are neither hunting gathering nor farming societies Management techniques to secure resources may include nonintensive growing of domesticated organisms o Anthropogenesis: process whereby humans modify their environment consciously or not o Longest living low level producer was Jomon as affluent foragers with hierarchical social organization and food storage. Neolithic Revolution - dependence upon domesticated plants and animals - Domestication: evolutionary process where humans modify the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals Evidence of Early Plant Domestication - increased size - reduction of natural means of seed dispersal o domesticated plants without brittle rachis nodes can carry plants home without losing the grain - reduction of husks or distasteful chemical compounds - loss of delayed seed germination - development of simultaneous ripening of the seed or fruit - structural change from soft to a tough stem involves unconscious selection o preservation of valued individuals and the destruction of less valued ones with no thought as to long range consequences. Evidence of Early Animal Domestication - kill the male and breed the females - the switch to food productions was not the result of discoveries - switch from food foraging to food production does not free people from hard work in fact takes longer hours - food production is not necessarily a more secure means of subsistence than food foraging Why Humans Became Food Producers - desiccation or oasis theory o Gordon Childe o glacial cover over Europe and Asia caused a southern shift in rain patterns from Europe to Northern Africa and Southwest Asia o as glaciers and rain retreated the place became drier and people were forced to congregate at oases for water www.notesolution.com
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