Bass Readings for Week 1

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Carolan Wood

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NotesFromReadingForweek1BASSPP1113139APPENDIX12Pp 111Chapter 1 Introduction Why Study Bones They constitute the evidence for the study of fossil manThey are the basis of racial classification in prehistoryThey are the means of biological comparison of prehistoric peoples with the present living descendantsThey bear witness to burial patterns and thus give evidence for the culture and world view of the people studied They form the major source of information on ancient diseases and often give clues as to the causes of deathTheir identification often helps solve forensic cases Bones often survive the process of decay and provide the main evidence for the human form after deathSkeletal evidence also has the potential to provide information on prehistoric customs and diseasesBasic Terms and Orientation of the Body Anatomical Position or Standard Erect Position Standing with the feet forward and the hands at the sides with the palms forwardAlways orient the bone you are studying as it is positioned in your bodyThere are three fundamental planes or sections1Sagittal or Midsagittal That which divides the body into right and left halves2Frontal or Coronal That which divides the body into front and rear portions 3Transverses or Horizontal Any place at right angles to 1 and 2Principal directions for parts of the bodyoFrontventral or anterioroReardorsal or posterioroUppercranial or superioroLowercaudal or inferioroMedialtoward the midlineoLateralaway from the midline Principal directions for parts of the limbsoProximalthat portion or end nearest the trunk or headoDistalthat portion or end farthest from the trunk or head Skeleton the solid framework of the body is composed ofoBonewhen come together they are said to articulate oCartilagetissue covering the surfaces where bones articulate Four classes of bones1Long bonesmain components of limbs in part sustain weight and with muscles attached to them form a system of levers for movement 2Short bonesmetacarpals of hands metatarsals of feet and phalanges of hands and feet found where compactness elasticity and limited motion are required3Flat bonescranial bones innominates and scapulae offer protection and provide wide areas for muscle attachment
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