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Chapter 27

TREE OF LIFE Chapter 27.docx

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Christoph Richter

TREE OF LIFE Chapter 2712 Notes271 Tools for Studying History Phylogenetic Trees phylogenyevolutionary history of group of organisms phylogenetic treeancestordescendant relationship among specieso branchpopulation through timeo node fork point where 2 branches divergeancestral group splits into 2 descendant groupspolytomymore than 2 descendant groups emergeo tip terminal nodespecies or mammals living todayended in extinctionnote taxonany named group of organismso out group species taxonomic group diverged prior to rest of taxao monophyletic group AKA lineageancestral group species cut branchnote root of tree bw out groupmonophyleticHow do researchers estimate phylogenies evolutionary tree relationships are estimated by dataanalyze species morphological OR genetic characteristics phenetic approach computing a statistic summarizing overall population similiarity ex gene sequences used to form genetic distanceavg bases in DNA differ bw 2 popscladistic approach identifying shared derived characters synapomorphies specifiedmonophyletic grouplineagecladesrecognized by synapomorphies union formsex furlactation identify mammals as a mg When ancest pop splits into 2 descendant lineages at node each DG evolves indpgetsunique characteristics derived from AG via genetic driftmutationselection How can bi
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