Textbook Notes (363,339)
Canada (158,341)
Biology (653)
BIO205H5 (48)
Chapter 2

Ch.2 Climate

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Christoph Richter

Climate October-08-11 10:40 PM • Weather is the combination of short-term conditions at a specific place and time • Climate is the long-term average pattern of weather in a rage of region 2.1 oEarth intercepts solar radiation • Molecular interactions in the atmospherecreate heat with the rotation of earth create movement of air and water • Sun gives off hot shortwaveradiation • Earth gives off cool longwave radiation • Some solar radiation is reflected or absorbed before reaching the earth's surface, some evaporate water, heat air close to land, and ocean and land • Most longwave radiation created by earth is absorbed by CO2 and clouds, which radiates back and create the greenhouse effect • Photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR) is electromagneticradiation from the sun used in photosynthesis 2.2 Intercepted solar radiation varies seasonally • At high latitudes, sun's radiations hits at an oblique angle, and must travel through thicker layer of air • Tropic of Cancer and tropic of Capricorn receives direct solar rays on summer and winter solstice respectively • The equator receives12 hours of day and night everyday of the year • Seasonality of solar radiation, temperature,and day length increases with latitude 2.3 Air temperaturedecreases with altitude • Atmospheric pressure is the amount of pressure exerted over an area • Rate of pressure decline slows with increasing altitude • Environmentallapse rate is the rate which temperature decrease with altitude (general) • Decreaseof temperature is caused by two factors ○ Air moleculesmovesfaster at surface because of greater pressure ○ Decline of the earth's warming effect • Air temperaturedoes not decline continuously ○ Troposphere most importantfor earth's climate ○ Stratosphere ○ Mesosphere ○ Thermosphere • Adiabatic cooling is the loss of heat in air by expansion, rather than losing it to the surrounding area, depends on moisturein air (adiabatic lapse rate) 2.4 Air masses circulate globally • Warm air at equator rises and movessouth and north • The cooled air is heavy, moves to low pressured equator, which is warmed up again • Law of angular motion:the momentumof an object moving from greater to lesser circumference will deflect in the direction of spin • Coriolis effect is the deflection pattern of air flow on earth 2.5 Solar energy, wind, and earth's rotation create ocean currents • Currents are the systematicpatterns of water flow on earth's oceans, created by winds • Gyres are the
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