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BIO380H5 (6)

Ch 11 Textbook.docx

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Rosa Da Silva

Gastrulation  first dramatic change to fetus  defines germ layers  set up cellular and tissue relationships  occur in epiblast  gene expression changes regulate formation of embryonic axes and organization The Timing of gastrulation and Subsequent Events  begins at 15 days of development  neurulation starts  development of major organ system starts Formation of the Epiblast and Hypoblast  ICM delamination separates epiblast and hypoblast prior gastrulation and implantation  morphogenic movements organize embryo into layers  new relationships between cells form allowing inter-cellular communications  epiblast is bilaminate, cuboidal and form embryo  hypoblast is flat and contribute to yolk sac The Role of Gastrulation  convert epiblast to ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm Human Gastrulation: How Do We Know How it Works?  series of defined cell movements with specific changes in cell shape  contribute to elongation of embryo  researchers use fluorescently label cells to follow movements, and confocal microscopy Gastrulation in Human Embryo  first cells move along surface to center line, and enter the embryo  o forms a bump called primitive node (node) o these cells become the notochord  primitive streak forms behind node  o first cells entering becomes endoderm, displace hypoblast cells o later cells entering becomes mesoderm o cells remaining on the surface becomes ectoderm or neural ectoderm Cell Movements and Rearrangements during Embryonic Development  cells enter primitive streak due to cell-cell a
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