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Chapter 5-7

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Lisa Trentin

Chapter 5 Prometheus - Creation of mortals is speculated but generally assumed that they were created by Prometheus - Prometheus known to be clever and inventor of many things - Made human race by mixing primeval earth and water (earth contained divine seed = humans are superior beings) - Name means ‘forelearner’ - Was the protector or mortals - Zeus envies Prometheus and feels threatented because of his intelligence and wit Prometheus tricks him and serves him ox fat and bones during Mecone Zeus gets angry and removes fire from trees that humans depended on to cook food Prometheus steals coal and grants to humans Zeus gets mad again and Prometheus to be binded to pillars in the Caucasus mountain where he was tortured by eagles eating his flesh but could not die (cause he’s immortal) but he suffers for the mortals (sacrifice like jesus) - Prometheus’s gift to humans: taught them brickmakng, calender, woodworking, numbers, writing, medicine, prophecy from dreams etc. Pandora - Zeus creates pandora to get back Pandora orders Hephaestus to mold water and clay to create her form, Athena to teach her womanly skill, Aphrodite to crown her with desire, hermes to give her theivish morals Prometheus offered Zeus something that looked good on the outside (ox fat) but bad on the inside (bones) so he does the same with pandora - Pandora decendants race of women a species known to contribute notihing to the production of food yet consume vast quantitiies male = producer of food, woman = consumer - She is responsible for the suffering in the world of all man kind - Name means “ all- gifted” Women as Containers - Women seen as jars - They’re bodies represent jars - In the myth of pandora, the jar is the emblem of woman herself - Jar = womb - So the jar holds hope, like a child in a womb, can bring good or ill The five Races - Gold race – “God race” lived in days of Cronus, everything was happy and blessed - Silver – worse than first, children would stay young for 100 yrs then suddenely grow old and die, acted with violence, did not respect Gods, Zeus kills them - Bronze – worse than silver, born from ashes trees, terrible, strong, violent, death inside hades - Heroes – better race, fought at thebes and troy to get back helen, now live under Cronus (zeus brought back) - Iron – hesiod’s own race, hesiod very pessimistic of his race, thought it brought sorrow Human origins: - Agreed that humans came from Earth, growing like plants from seeds or semen placed within it - Can also be created in the hands of a God ( how hephaestus made pandora) - Image of humans growing from the earth is derived from agriculuture: the tradition of the artisan God derives from pottery making - Human race did not rise all at once, males came first then females - Gods made gold, bronze, heroes, iron, silver. Then zeus erased humans in flood, only pyrrha and deucalion survied and they planted stone seeds to fresh start - Humans and god have same orgin (Earth) - How separation of human and Gods came about : when prometheus tricks Zeus at Mecone = brought on traditions of sacrfice, humans sacfriced animals to get on good terms with Gods when promtheus stole fire, zues creates Pandora who brings calamity main separation was when Zeus cursed men with woman Chapter 6 The Twelve Olympians - Zeus is head – “father of gods and men” , makes final decision - Hera – sister and wife of zeus, presides over family - Poseidon – rules the sea - Hestia – sister of zeus , watches the fire - Demeter – brings fertility to Earth - Hephaestus – inspires the craftsmens, workers in metal, who made classical civilization possible - Ares (Zeus+Hera) – is war - Hades – Zeus’ brother, house is beneath the Earth, is not an Olympian - Athena (Zeus + Metis) – women’s skills, practical knowledge, art of war - Aphrodite ( Uranus or Zeus) – power of sexual attraction - Apollo (Zeus + Leto) – prohecy and healing - Hermes – god of open spaces, travels high low everywhere, also master of deception , lies and commerce Zeus: Lord of the sky - All Gods are derived from early indo-european dieties associated with heaven - Zeus was identified with the sky and weather, his attribute was strength - Aegis “goat skin” was emblem of Zeus’ power, symbolized the storm cloud of the weather-god - Thunderbolt is his weapon - Bull was his special animal because of its immense power and fecundity and was ritually sacrificed to him - Eagle also associated with Zeus Zeus: God of Justice - Zeus presided over law and justice – law was not abstract ideals but what had always been done and therefore right (custom) , zeus upheld greek society - Zeus protect xenia – “a formal institution of friendship” idea of hospitility (how to treat a guest) The Seduction of Zeus By Hera - 115 affairs - With the help of Aphrodite, Hera wears an embroidered belt that makes her so lovely that it seduces zeus while he watches the trojan war. She does this to distract him so she can help the greeks - Zeus wakes up and realizes Hera sneaked away to rouse the other Gods against the trojans and gets angry Zeus and Fate - Allegory of Athena – Zeus swallows Metis “cleverness” , meaning that the rule of Zeus combines force with intelligence - Zeus + Themis “unchangeable laws of the universe” , union with her explains under Zeus’s reign the universe is governed by law not force and whim Horae = “seasons” Morae = “fates” – representing dar, and implacebe destiny - Zeus coud act against fate but to do so would upset the scheme of things and so he doesn’t Some Other Loves of Zeus - Zeus + Eurynome = Graces (usually in three) , personify feminie qualities and make women attractive to men , linked with aphrodite - Zeus + Mnemosyne (“Memory”) = Muses – inspire poets and musicians - Zeus was also lover of boys ex. - Zeus + Ganymede – most beautiful of mortals, prince of trojan, sent an eagle to carry him to Olympus and therefore remained as cupbearer to gods at the Greek symposium Hera, Queen of Heaven - Godddess of marriage and fertility , sometimes called “cow-eyed” - Cow was special animal - Zeus affairs were great threat to marriage and orderly inheritance of rank and property, which is why Hera prosecutes mist
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