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-reciprocal concessions are difficult: to whom do you make a concession?
-positional bargaining leads to the formation of coalitions among parties whose
shared interests are often more symbolic than substantive.
-soft vs. hard negotiators
- emphasize s the importance of building and maintaining a relationship
-vulnerable to hard bargainer
-yields in order to avoid confrontation and insists on agreement.
-who dominates soft bargainer
-makes concessions and threats
The game of negotiation takes place at two levels
1) negotiation addresses the substance (ex. your salary, price to be paid)
2) negotiation focuses on the procedure for dealing with the substance (how you
will negotiate -- soft or hard?)
-- a game about a game - meta game
** an alternative to positional bargaining: a method of negotiation explicitly de-
signed to produce wise outcomes efficiently and amicably
>> principled negotiation (negotiation on the merits)
-People -- separate people from the problem
-Interest -- focus on interests, not positions
-Options -- generate a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do
-Criteria -- insist that the result be based on some objective standard.
3 stages in the negotiation process:
analysis . planning . discussion
Separate the People from the Problem
- at a minimum, a negotiator wants to maintain a working relationship good
enough to produce an acceptable agreement , if possible given each side’s inter-
-put yourself in their shoes
- the ability to see the situation as the other side sees it, as difficult as it may be, is
one of the most important skills a negotiator can possess. - to accomplish this
you should be prepared to withhold judgement.. as you “try on” their views -- un-
derstanding their view therefore is a benefit and not a cost (p.22) .. allows you to
reduce the area of conflict.
-Don’t blame them for your problem - when you talk about the problem, separate
the symptoms from the person with whom you are talking
Face-saving: make your proposals consistent with their values
- reflects a person’s need to reconcile the stand he takes in a negotiation with his
principles and with his past words and deeds.
-involves reconciling an agreement with principle and with the self-image of the
-conceptualize or phrase the substance different so that an outcome seems fair
-may quickly bring a negotiation to an impasse or an end.
-don’t react to outbursts
-allow the other party to let steam off (stay silent and listen)