Marketing Communications Mix
The specific mix of advertising, personal selling, Direct Marketing ,sales promotion, and public relations
a company uses to pursue its advertising and marketing objectives.
Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified
Short-term incentives to encourage purchase or sale of a product or service
Personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer
Direct communications with targeted individuals to obtain an immediate response and lasting customer
Integrated Marketing Communications
The concept under which a company carefully integrates and coordinates its many communications
channels to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling message about the organization and its products.
– Conflicting messages from different sources or promotional approaches can confuse
company or brand images
– The problem is particularly prevalent when
functional specialists handle individual forms of marketing communications
The communication process:
• Should be designed to manage customer relationships over time.
• Begins with an audit of all potential contacts a customer might have with the brand.
• Effective communication requires knowledge of how communication works.
6 steps in developing effective communication:
Step 1: Identifying the Target Audience
-Affects decisions related to what, how, when, and where message will be said, as well as who will say it
Step 2: Determining Communication Objectives
6 buyer readiness stage
Step 3: Designing a Message
AIDA framework guides message design A - Attention : attract the attention of the customer.
I - Interest: raise customer interest by focusing on and demonstrating advantages and benefits
D - Desire: convince customers that they want and desire the product or service and that it will satisfy
A - Action: lead customers towards taking action and/or purchasing.
Message content (what will you say?) contains appeals or themes designed to produce desired results
Rational appeals: relate to the audience’s self-interest
Emotional appeals: stir up negative or positive feelings using humour, fear, pride, joy, or even
Moral appeals: related the audience’s sense of right versus wrong
Message Structure (How to say it?): Key decisions are required with respect to three message structure
Whether or not to draw a conclusion
One-sided vs. two-sided argument
Order of argument presentation
Message Format (How to say it?): Design, layout, copy, color, shape, movement, words, sounds, voice,
body language, dress, etc.
Step 4: Choosing Media
-Personal communication channels
Includes face-to-face, phone, mail, and Internet chat communications
Word-of-mouth influence is often critical
Buzz marketing cultivates opinion leaders
-Nonpersonal communication channels Includes media, atmosphere, and events
Step 5: Selecting the Message Source
Highly credible sources are more persuasive
A poor spokesperson can tarnish a brand
Step 6: Collecting Feedback
Recognition, recall, and behavioural measures are assessed
May suggest changes in product/promotion Setting the total promotion budget:
Budget is set at a level that a company can afford
Past or forecasted sales may be used
Budget matches competitors’ outlays
Specific objectives are defined
Tasks required to achieve objectives are determined
Costs of performing tasks