Organizations as Psychological Environments.docx

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Organizations as Psychological Environments 2002this chapter contain some frameworks for descrbing different organizations as to provide insight into the effects organizations are likely to have on people working in them Two main concepts are used organizational structure and organizational culuture The chapter shows the nature of the links between them The final part focuses on cultures that lead to the kind of jobs that most people find psychologically satisfying Dissatisfying psychological enviornments tend to be lacking in culutural qualities which lead to health and wellbeing to positive attitudes towards the organizations and hence to motivation for achieving the organizations goalsThe Nature of Organizationsorganizations are established to achieve outcomes to produce things to provide services to govern ppl to invent things to sell thingsin attempting to reach such goals the managers who shape organizations try to create social structures that will help in their attainmentthe creation of rules and procedural system to ensure that ppl carry out activities reliably and efficientlyMINTZBERGS work on organizational structure offers a framework that can be used to indicate links amongst the 3 conceptsMintzbergs concepts for analyzing organizationsMB divides an organization into 5 basic partsat the top is the strategic apex where policies are decided plans made to executre them resources allocated and orders given to ensure their executionbelow the strategic apex is the middle line of employees who are responsible for carrying out the orders and making sure the policies are pursuedto do the actual work itself whether it is producing goods or providing a service there is an operating core In an organization it is the doctors and the nurses In other words the operating core can in some cases consists of highly qualified individuals though in many manufacturing organizations the role is filled by blue collar workers skilled and less skilled the central part of the organizations structure is is assisted by two other groups technostructure individuals in the technostructure are analysts or technical advisers They plan and design work they select and train people to do the work they decide strategies for controlling how work is done but they do not directly produce the main output or service A major role they have is to create standardization of products and processes and thus to improve efficiencysupport structure These individuals and groups service the organizations needs by looking after the buildings keeping accoutns paying bills and wages providing meals distributing mails Etc
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