Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTM (8,000)
PSY (1,000)
PSY100Y5 (800)
Chapter 3

textbook notes Chapter3


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Chapter
3

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Oct/6/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 3: THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR
Chapter 3
(The biological Bases of Behavior)
Communication In The Nervous System
Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware
Glia- cells found throughout the nervous system that provide structural support,
nourishment, and insulation for neurons.
Neurons- individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit
information
Soma/cell body- contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common
to most cells
Dendrites- Parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
Axon- Long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to
muscles or glands.
Myelin sheath- insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons.
(speeds up the transmission of signals that move along axons)
Synapse- junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
The Neuron at Rest: A Tiny Battery
-Neural impulse is a complex electrochemical reaction.
-Both inside and outside the neuron are fluids containing electrically
charged atoms and molecules called ions.
-Neuron is a tiny battery, a store of potential energy
The Action Potential
-if voltage of neuron remains constant, the cell is quiet and no messages are
being sent
-Action potential- very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels
along an axon.
Absolute refractory period- minimum length of time after an action potential during
which another action potential cannot begin.
The All or None Law
-weaker stimuli do not produce smaller action potentials
Sending Signals: Chemicals as Couriers
1/9
www.notesolution.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Oct/6/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 3: THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR
Snaptic Cleft – microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell
membrane of another neuron.
Neuro transmitters- chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
Receiving Signals: Postsynaptic Potentials
Postsynaptic potential- voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell
membrane.
Excitatory PSP- positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic
neuron will fire action potentials.
Inhibitory PSP- negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the post synaptic
neuron will fire action potentials.
Organization of the Nervous System
Peripheral nervous system- made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and
spinal cord. Nerves are bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the
peripheral nervous system.
Somatic nervous system- made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles
and to sensory receptors.
-Lets you feel the world and move around in it.
The autonomic Nervous System
-made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth
muscles, and glands.
-Subdivided into two branches: sympathetic division and the
parasympathetic division
Sympathetic division- branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the
body’s resources for emergencies. (Fight or Flight Response)
Parasympathetic division- branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally
conserves bodily resources.
The Central Nervous System
-lies within the skull and the spinal column
-consists of the brain and the spinal cord
2/9
www.notesolution.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Oct/6/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 3: THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR
-cerebrospinal fluid- nourishes the brain and provides a protective cushion
for it.
The Spinal Cord
-Connects the brain to the rest of the body through the peripheral nervous
system.
-Runs from the base of the brain to below the level of the waist.
The Brain
-Part of the central nervous system that fills the upper portion of the skull.
-Neuroscientists are investigators who conduct research on the brain or
other parts of the nervous system.
-In research of the brain common methods are electrical recordings,
Lesioning, and electrical stimulation.
Electrical Recordings
-German psychiatrist named Hans Berger invented a machine that could
record broad patterns of brain electrical activity.
-Electroencephalograph- device that monitors the electrical activity of the
brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of
the scalp.
-Used in the clinical diagnosis of brain damage and neurological disorders.
Lesioning
-Lesioning involves destroying a piece of the brain.
-Done by inserting an electrode into a brain structure and passing a high
frequency electric current through it to burn the tissue and disable the
structure.
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain
-Involved sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate
(activate) it.
Brain- Imaging procedures
-The CT (computerized tomography) scan is a computer-enhanced x ray of
brain structure.
-Least expensive and has been widely used in research.
3/9
www.notesolution.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version