PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Thomas Edison, Content Validity, Construct Validity
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PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 9 NOTES
• Thomas Edison thought trivia was a way to access intelligence and ability level, so he
developed a trivia intelligence test.
• A Psychological Test: a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour.
(measurement instruments used to measure the individual differences that exists among
people such as intelligence); tell you how you score relative to others.
• Intelligence test: measure general mental ability (asses intellectual potential)
• Aptitude tests: tests specific types of mental abilities; measure potential learning (break
mental ability into components).
• Achievement tests: gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects
(reading, English, etc.) measure previous learning
• Personality tests: measure various aspects of personality (motives, interests, etc.)
• Personality scales and mental tests are standardized measures of behaviour
• Standardization: uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.
(everyone gets the same instructions, questions, etc.)
• Test norms: give info about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to
other scores on that test.
• Standardization group: the sample of people that the norms are based on.
• A Percentile score: indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score
one has obtained.
• Reliability: refers to the measurement consistency of a test.
• Test-retest reliability: estimated by comparing subjects’ scores on two administrations
of a test.
• A correlation coefficient: a numerical index of the degree of relationship b/w two
• Validity: the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure. (term also used
to refer to accuracy of inferences or decisions based on a test).
• Common ways of establishing validity are content, criterion-related, and construct
• Content validity: the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain
it’s supposed to cover (ex. Classroom exams).
• Criterion-related validity: estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their
scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test.
• Abstract personal qualities: creativity, intelligence, extraversion, or independence.
• Construct validity: the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular
• Francis Galton studied family trees and found that success and eminence appeared
consistent in some families. He suggested that intelligence is passed down through
• Binet and Simon created the first useful test of general mental ability.
• The Binet-Simon Scale expressed a child’s score in terms of “mental-level” or “mental
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