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Chapter 9

PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Thomas Edison, Content Validity, Construct Validity


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Chapter
9

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PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 9 NOTES
Thomas Edison thought trivia was a way to access intelligence and ability level, so he
developed a trivia intelligence test.
A Psychological Test: a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour.
(measurement instruments used to measure the individual differences that exists among
people such as intelligence); tell you how you score relative to others.
Intelligence test: measure general mental ability (asses intellectual potential)
Aptitude tests: tests specific types of mental abilities; measure potential learning (break
mental ability into components).
Achievement tests: gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects
(reading, English, etc.) measure previous learning
Personality tests: measure various aspects of personality (motives, interests, etc.)
Personality scales and mental tests are standardized measures of behaviour
Standardization: uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.
(everyone gets the same instructions, questions, etc.)
Test norms: give info about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to
other scores on that test.
Standardization group: the sample of people that the norms are based on.
A Percentile score: indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score
one has obtained.
Reliability
Reliability: refers to the measurement consistency of a test.
Test-retest reliability: estimated by comparing subjects’ scores on two administrations
of a test.
A correlation coefficient: a numerical index of the degree of relationship b/w two
variables.
Validity
Validity: the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure. (term also used
to refer to accuracy of inferences or decisions based on a test).
Common ways of establishing validity are content, criterion-related, and construct
validity.
Content validity: the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain
it’s supposed to cover (ex. Classroom exams).
Criterion-related validity: estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their
scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test.
Abstract personal qualities: creativity, intelligence, extraversion, or independence.
Construct validity: the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular
hypothetical construct.
Francis Galton studied family trees and found that success and eminence appeared
consistent in some families. He suggested that intelligence is passed down through
genetic inheritance.
Binet and Simon created the first useful test of general mental ability.
The Binet-Simon Scale expressed a child’s score in terms of “mental-level” or “mental
age”.
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