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Chapter 15

PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Observational Learning, Fluoxetine, Psychoanalysis

Course Code
Dax Urbszat

of 4
Feb/29/2004, Sunday CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
I. The Elements of the Treatment Process
A. Treatments: How Many Types Are There?
1. Insight Therapy – i.e. “talking therapy”. Roots found in Freudian psychology.
Clients engage in complex verbal interactions with therapists.
a. Goal – pursue increased insight regarding the nature of client’s
difficulties and sort through possible solutions.
b. i.e. Family/Marital Therapy.
2. Behavior Therapy – based on principles of learning. Make direct efforts to
alter problematic responses (i.e. phobias) and maladaptive habits (i.e. drug
a. Involves classical, operant and observational learning.
3. Biomedical Therapies – involve interventions into a person’s biological
functioning, through drug and electroconvulsive (shock) therapy i.e.
B. Clients: Who Seeks Therapy
1. Most popular treatments for anxiety and depression.
2. 15% of population receives mental health service in a year.
3. Reason’s people don’t pursue treatment – cost, lack of insurance, stigma
(personal weakness).
C. Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment
1. Psychologists –
a. 2 Types – clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists – both
specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and
everyday behavioral problems.
b. Clinical – treatment of full fledged disorders.
c. Counseling – treatment of everyday adjustment problems in normal
d. Must earn doctoral degree.
e. Psychologists more likely to use behavioral techniques.
2. Psychiatrist – physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of
psychological disorders.
a. MD Degree
3. Other Mental Health Professionals
a. Hospitals – clinical social workers, psychiatrist nurses as part of a team.
b. Counselors – schools, etc. – marital/drug counseling.
II. Insight Therapies
Involve verbal interactions intended to enhance the client’s self knowledge and
thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior.
A. Psychoanalysis
1. Psychoanalysis – an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of
unconscious, conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free
association and transference.
2. Freud – neurotic problems are caused by unconscious conflicts left over from
early childhood. Inner conflicts of Id, ego, and superego.
3. Probing the Unconscious – two techniques
a. Free Association – clients spontaneously express their thoughts and
feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible.
Feb/29/2004, Sunday CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
b. Dream Analysis – therapist interprets symbolic meaning of the client’s
4. Interpretation – therapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the
client’s thoughts, feelings, memories and behaviors.
5. Resistance – largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the
progress of therapy.
6. Transference – clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways
that mimic critical relationships in their lives.
7. Modern Psychodynamic Therapies – based on Jung, Adler, etc.
B. Client-Centered Therapy
1. Client-Centered Therapy – an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a
supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining
the pace and direction of their therapy. (Rogers)
a. Rogers – conflict due to incongruence between reality and self concept.
2. Therapeutic Climate – therapist must provide:
a. Genuineness – honesty and spontaneously
b. Unconditioned positive regard – therapist must show a non judgmental
acceptance of patient.
c. Empathy – understand the world from client’s point of view.
3. Therapeutic Process – therapist provides relatively little guidance, but
primarily provides feedback. Key Task: Clarification
C. Cognitive Therapy
1. Cognitive Therapy – an insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing changing
negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. (Beck)
2. Originally devised as a treatment for depression.
3. Depressed People tend to:
a. Blame setbacks on personal inadequacies
b. Focus on negative events
c. Be pessimistic of the future
d. Have a negative self worth.
4. Goals and Techniques –
a. Goal – change the way clients think – taught to detect automatic
negative thoughts and test them with reality.
b. Therapists actively involved with pace of therapy. May argue with
5. Kinship with Behavior Therapy – client may be given “homework
assignments” and asked to perform overt behaviors.
D. Group Therapy
1. Group therapy is the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group.
2. Participant’s Roles – participants function as therapists for one another.
a. Describe problems, viewpoints, coping strategies.
b. Therapist – selecting participants, setting goals for group, maintaining
therapeutic process, protecting clients from harm .
3. Advantages of The Group Experience – save time, money, clients learn
misery not unique, work on social skills.
E. Evaluating Insight Therapies
Feb/29/2004, Sunday CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
1. Spontaneous Remission – recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal
III. Behavior Therapies
A. Introduction
1. Behavior Therapy differs from insight therapy as behavior therapies don’t
need clients to achieve grand insights about themselves.
2. Client needs to get rid of maladaptive behavior.
3. Behavior Therapy – the application of learning principles to direct efforts to
change client’s maladaptive behavior.
4. Based on:
a. Behavior is a product of learning.
b. What has been learned can be unlearned.
B. Systematic Desensitization
1. Systematic Desensitization – a behavior therapy used to reduce phobic clients’
anxiety responses through counter conditioning.
2. Therapist helps client build an anxiety hierarchy.
3. Trains the client in deep muscle relaxation.
4. Client tries to work through the hierarchy, learning to remain relaxed while
imaging each stimulus.
5. Counter-conditioning – attempt to reverse process of classical conditioning by
associating the crucial stimulus with a new conditioned response.
C. Aversion Therapy
1. Behavior Therapy in which an aversion stimulus is paired with a stimulus that
elicits an undesirable response.
2. Not Widely Used.
D. Social Skills Training
1. Social Skills Training – behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal
skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping.
2. Modeling – client encouraged to watch socially skilled friends and colleagues
to acquire appropriate responses through observation.
3. Behavioral Rehearsal – client tries to practice techniques in role playing
4. Shaping – clients gradually asked to handle more complicated and delicate
E. Bio-Feedback
1. Bio-Feedback – bodily function (i.e. heart rate) is monitored and info about
the function is fed back to the person to facilitate improved control of the
physiological process.
IV. Biomedical Therapies
A. Treatment with Drugs
1. Biomedical Therapies – physiological interventions intended to reduce
symptoms associated with psychological disorders.
2. Psychopharmacotherapy – treatment of mental disorders with medication (i.e.
Drug Therapy).
3. Anti-anxiety drugs – relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness. i.e.
Valium (tranquilizers) – immediate relief, but with side effects.