Chapter 3 - COMPLETE Textbook Notes

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5 Apr 2011
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Psych Chapter 3
Outline
Communication in the Nervous System
oNervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware
oThe Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send Information
oThe Synapse: Where Neurons Meet
oNeurotransmitters and Behaviours
Organization of the Nervous System
oThe Peripheral Nervous Systems
oThe Central Nervous System
Looking Inside the Brain: Research Methods
oElectrical Recordings
oLesioning
oElectrical Stimulation of the Brain
oTranscranial Magnetic Stimulation
oBrain-Imaging Procedures
The Brain and Behaviour
oThe Hindbrain
oThe Midbrain
oThe Forebrain
oThe Plasticity of the Brain
Right Brain/Left Brian: Cerebral Laterality
oBisecting the Brain: Split-Brain Research
oHemispheric Specialization in the Intact Brain
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The Endocrine System
Heredity and Behaviour: Is it All In The Genes?
oBasic Principles of Genetics
oInvestigating Hereditary Influence
oThe Interplay of Heredity and Environment
The Evolutionary Bases of Behaviour:
oDarwins Insights
oSubsequent Refinements to Evolutionary Theory
oBehaviours as Adaptive Traits
Communication in the Nervous System
Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware
Cells in nervous system fall into two major categories:
oGlia
oNeurons
Neurons: The individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and
transmit information.
oNeurons permit communication within the nervous system.
oSoma: Soma, or cell body, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical
machinery common to most cells. Soma is Greek for body.
oDendrites: Part of the neuron that are specialized to receive information.
Greek word for tree. Each branch is a dendrite.
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oAxon: Long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to the
other neurons or to muscles or glands.
oMyelin Sheath: Insulating material derived from glia cells. They encase
some axons.
oTerminal Buttons: Small knobs that secrete chemicals called
neurotransmitters.
oSynapse: Junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to
another. Greek for junction.
oInformation is received at the dendrites, passed through the soma along the
axon, and transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called
synapses.
Glia: Cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of
support for neurons. Greek for glue.
oSmaller than the neurons, but outnumber them 10 to 1.
oSupply nourishment to neurons, help remove thee neurons waste products,
provide insulation around many axons (Myelin sheath).
The Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send Information
The Neuron at Rest: A Tiny Battery
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Document Summary

Soma is greek for body: dendrites: part of the neuron that are specialized to receive information. Each branch is a dendrite. www. notesolution. com: axon: long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to the other neurons or to muscles or glands, myelin sheath: insulating material derived from glia cells. They encase some axons: terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters, synapse: junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. Greek for glue: smaller than the neurons, but outnumber them 10 to 1, supply nourishment to neurons, help remove thee neurons" waste products, provide insulation around many axons (myelin sheath). The synapse: where neurons: sending chemicals: chemicals as couriers, two neurons don"t actually touch. Inhibitory: an excitatory psp is a positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire an action potential.

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