Chapter 8 notes. Intelligence and creativity
-Psychometric approach: a measurement-based view that has advanced understanding
of the structure of intelligence.
Nature of Intelligence
-One of the questions concerning the nature of intelligence is whether it is a single ability or
a collection of independent mental abilities.
-Spearman argues that intelligence was a single ability that an individual used in any
situation that involved thinking. Spearman called this unitary ability the g factor (g for
-the g factor implies that an individual performs at roughly the same level of
proficiency regardless of the type of task he or she undertakes.
-the idea that intelligence is conceptualized as a general ability was held by Alfred
-Thurstone proposed that there are 5 to 7 primary mental abilities
1. Verbal Comprehension: the principal factor in such tests as reading
comprehension, verbal analogies, disarranged sentences, verbal reasoning, and proverb
interpretation. It is measured by vocabulary tests
2. Word Fluency: the principal factor in such tests as anagrams, rhyming, or
naming words in a given category (ex. “list as many boys’ names as you can”, or “list as
many words as you can that begin with the letter B”)
3.Associative Memory: The principal factor in tests that tap the extent to which
one uses associative strategies to remember information. It is measured by tests of memory
for paired associates
4. Perceptual Speed: The factor in tests that assess quick and accurate
identification of visual details, and similarities and differences between objects. It is
measured by tests of how long it takes individuals to compare the visual featured of objects
or string of letter or numbers.
5. Inductive reasoning: The principal factor in tests that tap the facility to
discover rules or underling principles. It is measured by tests such as in a number series.
6. Numerical Facility: The principal factor in tests of basic arithmetic skills and
-Schaie adapted Thurstone’s test for use with older adults: the Schaie-Thurstone Adult
Mental Abilities Test has been used to describe age-related changes in mental abilities
-Computer analogy: intelligence consists of a number of separate software programs,
each designed to carry out a particular kind of task.
-John Horn argues for the existence of two components of intelligence: Crystallized and
-Crystallized intelligence: represents the extent to which individuals have
acquired and retained knowledge. Verbal comprehension and vocabulary. Tests used to
measure it include vocabulary, simple analogies, remote associations, and judgment in
everyday problem solving
-Fluid Intelligence: “pure” ability to perceive, remember, and think about a variety
of basic ideas (otherwise mental abilities that are not imparted by one’s culture”). Abilities
include extracting relationships among patterns, drawing inferences from relationships,
and comprehending implications. Primary mental abilities: spatial reasoning and
perceptual speed. Measured by letter series, matrices, and figural relations. Suggested that
fluid intelligence represents the integrity of the central nervous system.
The measurement of intelligence
-Psychometricians must consider several factors in developing an intelligence test
(important to realize that intelligence does not really exist)
-Intelligence is a hypothetical construct rather than a real entity
-This means that psychometric tests must measure intelligence indirectly by examining a
person’s performance on tasks that reflect the use of intelligence
-A second factor to consider is that many additional factors influence test performance.
These factors include personality characteristics, motivation, educational background,
anxiety, fatigue, and health
-A third consideration is that it is necessary to present individuals with a variety of tasks to
evaluate whether intelligence is a single mental ability, such as a g factor, or a number of
mental abilities. This is why contemporary intelligence tests consist of a number of scales or
-One of the most commonly used tests to measure adult intelligence is the Wechsler
Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III).
-This test consists of 12 subsets
-with 6 composing a verbal scale (language and numerical skills: vocab,
arithmetic, comprehension, similarities, general info, and digit span).
-The remaining 5 subsets compose the performance scale. The subtests on
this scale include picture completion, picture arrangement, block design, object
assembly, and digit symbol substitution. Nonverbal responses
-Another thing to consider is that subtests may or may not measure different aspects of
intelligence. Each subtest might measure the same mental ability- the verbal factor, for
example – but in a different way. To determine whether the various subtest of an
intelligence test are measuring a single factor or different factors, researchers use factor
analysis. Factor Analysis: a statistical procedure used to determine how scores on
multiple tasks intercorrelate (or fail to intercorrelate).
-The first IQ tests were constructed to predict academic performance for children and
-IQ is the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.
-The concept of mental age breaks down when applied to the adult years.
- The IQ formula used for children is useless of determining adult intelligence. Adult IQ is
derived by comparing scores to age norms. A score of 100 is assigned to those performing at
the average for their age group, whereas IQs of greater or less than 100 are assigned
according to the degree of statistical deviation from this average. Using this scoring system,
it is possible for different-aged adults to perform in an identical manner, yet receive
different IQ scores.
-Example: average 25 yr old passes 65 questions on an IQ test, and the average 75
year old passes 45 questions on the same test. A 25 year old who passed 55 questions would
be assessed as having below-average IQ, and a 75 year old who passed 55 questions would
be assessed as having an above average IQ,
-it seems that examining raw scores provides more valuable information
about developmental changes in mental performance than examining age-adjusted scores.