discover rules or underling principles. It is measured by tests such as in a number series.
6. Numerical Facility: The principal factor in tests of basic arithmetic skills and
-Schaie adapted Thurstone’s test for use with older adults: the Schaie-Thurstone Adult
Mental Abilities Test has been used to describe age-related changes in mental abilities
-Computer analogy: intelligence consists of a number of separate software programs,
each designed to carry out a particular kind of task.
-John Horn argues for the existence of two components of intelligence: Crystallized and
-Crystallized intelligence: represents the extent to which individuals have
acquired and retained knowledge. Verbal comprehension and vocabulary. Tests used to
measure it include vocabulary, simple analogies, remote associations, and judgment in
everyday problem solving
-Fluid Intelligence: “pure” ability to perceive, remember, and think about a variety
of basic ideas (otherwise mental abilities that are not imparted by one’s culture”). Abilities
include extracting relationships among patterns, drawing inferences from relationships,
and comprehending implications. Primary mental abilities: spatial reasoning and
perceptual speed. Measured by letter series, matrices, and figural relations. Suggested that
fluid intelligence represents the integrity of the central nervous system.
The measurement of intelligence
-Psychometricians must consider several factors in developing an intelligence test
(important to realize that intelligence does not really exist)
-Intelligence is a hypothetical construct rather than a real entity
-This means that psychometric tests must measure intelligence indirectly by examining a
person’s performance on tasks that reflect the use of intelligence
-A second factor to consider is that many additional factors influence test performance.
These factors include personality characteristics, motivation, educational background,
anxiety, fatigue, and health
-A third consideration is that it is necessary to present individuals with a variety of tasks to
evaluate whether intelligence is a single mental ability, such as a g factor, or a number of
mental abilities. This is why contemporary intelligence tests consist of a number of scales or