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Chapter 13

Chapter 13.docx

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Ayesha Khan

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Chapter 13 March-26-13 1:41 AM Biopsychosocial model = physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, & sociocultural factors Stress – major stressful event leading to minor stressors  Has a cumulative nature  Lies in the eyes/ mind of the beholder Stressors can be acute stressors or chronic stressors Major types of stress: 1. Frustration 2. Conflict  Approach-approach – least stressful  Avoidance-avoidance – most unpleasant and highly stressful  Approach-avoidance – produce vacillation 3. Change – can be stressful even when changes are welcomed  Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) – the higher scores, the more vulnerable to many kinds of illness and psychological problems 4. Pressure – to perform, conform  More strongly related to measures of mental health  Is often self-imposed  Other forms of stress can be self-generated too Responding to stress Stress affects individual's: 1. Emotional responses  Emotions commonly elicited  Link between appraisals (specific cognitive reactions to stress) and specific emotions  Annoyance, anger, rage  Apprehesion, anxiety, fear  Dejection, sadness, grief  Positive emotions could also occur (they do not vanish in times of stress and also help people in bouncing back from difficulties associated w/ stress)  Frederickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions a. Positive emotions alter people's mindsets/ broaden scope of attention/ increase creativity and flexibility in problem solving b. ...can undo effects of negative emotions thus shortening the damaging physiological responses to stress c. ...can promote rewarding social interactions  Research: a. Positive emotions widen people's scope of attention b. ...promote healthy coping responses c. ...initiate upward spirals in emotional well-being d. ...facilitate flourishing mental health e. ...lower levels of stress hormones f. ...reduce mortality in some populations g. ...enhance immune response  Effects of emotional arousal  Inverted U-hypothesis - task performance should improve with increased emotional arousal  Optimal level of arousal - the level of arousal at which performance peaks  As a task becomes more complex, the optimal level of arousal tends to decrease (harder task = decrease level of arousal) 2. Physiological responses  The fight-or-flight response  Mediated by the sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system (ANS) A "leftover" from humanity's evolutionary past   In females, they have fostered more of a "tend and befriend" response  "basic neuroendocrine core of stress responses" is largely the same for both genders  The general adaptation syndrome  Hans Selye - identified and named the concept of stress/ formulated the theory  It is a model of the body's stress response, consisting of three stages: 1. Alarm reaction = fight-or-flight response 2. Stage of resistance - when exposed to prolonged stress (chronic stress), physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts get under way 3. Stage of exhaustion - if stress can't be overcome, the body's resources may be depleted Harmful physiological effects can lead to "diseases of adaptation"  Strain may be a more appropriate word instead of stress  Brain-body pathways  1st pathway - hypothalamus --> activation of sympathetic division of ANS --> stimulation of adrenal medulla (the center of adrenal glands) --> release of catecholamines into bloodstream --> physiological changes seen in fight-or-flight response and body is mobilized for action  Increased cardiovascular responses, respiration, perspiration, blood flow to active muscles, muscle strength, mental activity  2nd pathway - hypothalamus --> signal to pituitary gland (master gland of endocrine system) --> secretion of ACTH --> stimulation of adrenal cortex (outer part of adrenal glands) --> release of corticosteroids --> increase energy/ inhibit tissue inflammation in case of injury  Increased protein & fat mobilization, access to energy storage  Decreased inflammation  During stress, there is interference in neurogenesis - formation of new neurons primarily in key areas of hypothalamus 3. Behavioral responses  Involves coping (active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands of stress)  ...may be adaptive or maladaptive  It is key aspect of personality (it is a stable, dispositional attribute)  Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) - measures 3 stable coping dimensions: i. Task-oriented coping ii. Emotion-oriented coping iii. Avoidance-oriented coping  Giving up and blaming oneself  Learned helplessness - passive behaviour produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events  ...behavioral disengagement that is associated with increased distress & contributes to depression  "giving up" = "goal adjustment"  Blaming oneself = "catastrophic thinking" accdg to Ellis  Striking out at others  Agression - any behaviour that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally  Frustration-aggression hypothesis - aggression is always caused by frustration  Displacement - when people are provoked, displaced aggression is common  Aggressive catharsis = release of emotional tension  Indulging oneself  ...unwise pattern of eating, drinking, smoking, using drugs, spending money, gambling...  Severe gamblers were found to use less task-oriented coping and more avoidance oriented coping strategies  Internet addiction = spending an inordinate amount of time on the internet and inability to control online use  Defensive coping  Defensive mechanism - largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions (like anxiety, anger, guilt, dejection) that's so often elicited by stress  ...works through self-deception (use of denial, resort to fantasy, bend reality in self- serving ways)  ...operate at various levels of awareness although largely unconscious  ...definitely normal  ...not really healthy (an avoidance strategy that rarely provides a solution to problems/ it relates to poor health/ defences represent wishful thinking which is likely to accomplish little)  "positive illusions" may be adaptive  Examples of defense mechanisms  Denial of reality  Fantasy  Intellectualization (isolation)  Undoing  Overcompensation  Constructive coping  ...relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal w/ stressful events  ...involves confronting problems directly  ...based in reasonably realistic appraisals of your stress and coping resources  ...involves learning to recognize/ inhibit potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress  ...includes making efforts to ensure body is not especially vulnerable to the possibly damaging effects of stress Effects of stress on psychological functioning  Impaired task performance  Many people tend to "choke" under pressure  Increase tendency to 1) jump to a conclusion too quickly w/o considering all options 2) do an unsystematic poorly organized review of available options  Burnout  ...involves physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism (negative attitude) & a lowered sense of self-efficacy (hopelessness/ helplessness) that can be brought on gradually by chronic work-related stress  ...caused by work overload, struggling w/ interpersonal conflicts at work, lack of control over work responsibilities & outcomes, & inadequate recognition for one's work  Post-traumatic stress disorder  ...involves enduring psychological disturbances attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event  ...can happen to anyone who suffers trauma  Psychological problems and disorders  Stress may contribute to poor academic performance, insomnia, & other sleep disturbances; sexual difficulties, alcohol abuse, & drug abuse  ...contributes to onset of full-fledged psychological disorders (depression) & anxiety disorders  Positive effects  Resilience in the face of stress  Promotion of personal growth/ self-improvement The effects of stress on physical health  Psychosomatic diseases - genuine physical ailments that were thought to be caused in part by stress and other psychological factors  ...were viewed as authentic organic maladies that were heavily stress-related  Type A Personality, Hostility, and Heart Disease  Coronary heart disease involves a reduction in blood flow in the coronary arteries which supply the heart w/ blood (accounts for 90% of heart-related deaths)  ...Artherosclerosis (narrowing of coronary arteries) is caused by buildup of fatty deposits & other debris on the inner walls of the arteries - more prevalent in men & tend to increase w/ age  Cardiovascular disease kills women just as often as men but these diseases tend to emerge in women 10 years later than in
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