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Chapter 6

Textbook Chapter 6 Notes

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Ayesha Khan

Notes From Reading C HAPTER 6:L EARNING (PGS. 248-299) Classical Conditioning  Learning – relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. One of the most fundamental concepts in psychology  Conditioning – learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment  Phobias – irrational fears of specific objects or situations  Classical Conditioning – type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. o First demonstrated by Pavlov, known as Pavlovian conditioning o Mainly regulates involuntary, reflexive responses Pavlov’s Demonstration: “Psychic Reflexes”  Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate when a tone was presented with meat powder  Neutral Stimulus – does not provide the conditioned response initially.  Learned associations are formed by events in an organism’s environment Terminology and Procedures  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) –stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.  Unconditioned Response (UCR) – unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning  Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.  Conditioned Response (CR) – learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.  Responses controlled through classical conditioning are said to be elicited  Trial – in classical conditioning, consists of any presentation of a stimulus of any or pair of stimuli. Classical Conditioning In Everyday Life  Conditioned Fears and Anxiety o Classical conditioning is responsible for a great many irrational fears  Evaluative Conditioning of Attitudes o Evaluated Conditioning – changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimulus o Advertising campaigns try to use classical conditioning to pair products with positive images.  Conditioning and Physiological Responses o Ader and Cohen – classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression – decrease in the production of antibodies. o Classical conditioning can also elicit allergic reactions  Conditioning and Drug Effects o Classical conditioning contributes to drug tolerance. Basic Process in Classical Conditioning  Acquisition: Forming New Responses o Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning something o Pavlov theorized that acquisition of a conditioned response depended on stimulus contiguity (occur in the same time and space) o Contiguity alone, however, does not produce conditioning. o Stimulus that are novel, unusual, or especially intense have more potential to become more CS’s than routine stimuli. o Timing of stimulus presentation is also important. 1/5 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 6:L EARNING (P GS. 248-299) o Simultaneous conditioning – the CS and UCS begin and end together. o Short delayed conditioning – CS begins just before the UCS and stops at the same time as the UCS. Best Method o Trace conditioning – the CS begins and ends before the UCS is presented  Extinction: Weakening conditioned responses o Extinction – the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o Consistent presentation of the CS alone without the UCS, leads to extinction  Spontaneous Recovery: Resurrecting Responses o Spontaneous Recovery – the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the CS. o Usually weak o Renewal Effect – if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place Stimulus Generalization and the Case of Little Albert  Generalization occur when a CR is elicited by a new stimulus that resembles the original CS o Little Albert  The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the generalization  Stimulus Discrimination – occurs when an organism that has learned a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. o The less similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the likelihood of discrimination.  Higher Order Conditioning – a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus.  Recent Directions in Pavlovian Conditioning o Involves the amygdala and cerebellum in Pavlovian fear and eye-blinking conditioning o Dijksterhus use subliminal conditioning to raise people’s self-esteem by flashing positive words like “healthy” and “smart” while control groups had neural word. Positive group had a higher self-esteem Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning – is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences Thorndike’s Law of Effect  Operant conditioning was created by Skinner  Law of Effect – if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, and the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened. Skinner’s Demo: It’s All a Matter of Consequences  Demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences.  Reinforcement – when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response. Terminology and Procedures  Operant Chamber/Skinner Box – small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled.  Operant responses tend to be voluntary, so they are “emitted” 2/5 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 6:L EARNING (PGS. 248-299)  Reinforcement Contingencies – the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers o Experimenter changes whether positive consequences occur when the animal makes the designated response o Dependent Variable – subjects response rate over time.  Cumulative Recorder – creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time. o Key: slope of the line – rapid response rate is steep. Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning  Acquisition and Shaping o Acquisition - the initial stage of learning some new patter of responding o Shaping – the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response.  Extinction – gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by a reinforce o Resistance to Extinction – when an organism continues to m
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