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Canada (158,215)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY100Y5 (771)
Dax Urbszat (643)
Chapter 2


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 2: Research Methods Notes • There are 3 sets of interrelated goals: 1. Measurement and Description→developing measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behaviour. 2. Understanding and Prediction→scientist believe that they understand events when they can explain the reasons for the occurrence of the events. To evaluate their understanding, scientist make and test their hypotheses. 3. Application and Control→once scientist understand a phenomenon, they can exert more control over it. • By integrating unrelated facts and principles into a coherent whole, theories permit psychologists to make the leap from the description of behaviour to the understanding of behaviour. • Scientific investigations are systematic, they follow an orderly pattern: 1. Step 1: Formulate a testable hypothesis→translate a theory into a testable hypothesis. To be testable, scientific hypotheses must be formulated precisely, and the variables under study must be clearly defined. Researches achieve these clear formulations by providing operational definitions(describe the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable) of the relevant variables. 2. Step 2: Select the Research Method and Design the Study→figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test. The research method depends on the nature of the question under study. The various methods-experiments, case studies, surveys-each have advantages and disadvantages, so the researcher has to consider them and select the strategy that is most appropriate. Once researches have chosen a general method, they must take detailed plans for executing their study. 3. Step 3: Collect the Data→there are variety of data collection techniques, such as direct observation, questionnaire, interview, psychological test, physiological recording, and examination of archival records(see page 49). 4. Step 4: Analyze the Date and Draw Conclusions→the observations made in a study are usually converted into numbers. Researchers use statistics to analyze their data. 5. Step 5: Report the Findings→scientific progress can only be achieved if the researches share their findings with one another and with the general public. Researches prepare a report that is delivered at a scientific meeting and submitted to a journal for publication. • There are 2 advantages of the scientific approach. The first is its clarity and precision, and the second is its relative intolerance of error. • The experiment is a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result. The experiment allows researchers to detect cause-and-effect relationship, so psychologist depend on this method more than any other. • Random Assignment: ensures that every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions. • What are the differences between independent and dependent variables? • The experimental group consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable. The control group consists of similar subjects who do not receiv
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