Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span
PROGRESS BEFORE BIRTH
What is the prenatal development?
Prenatal period is from conception to the birth, conception is when the egg and sperm unite and become a
What is the course of Prenatal development?
1. Germinal stage (2 weeks)
2. Embryonic stage (2 weeks – 2 months)
3. Fetal stage (2 months – birth)
Explain germinal stage
• Germinal stage takes place within the first 2 weeks, the zygote rapidly divides into a mass of
• On the 7 day generally the zygote sticks to the uterine wall and then begins to form a placenta
• Which basically provides nutrients and oxygen to the baby
Explain embryonic stage
• This is when vital organs start to form and develop and the thing start to appear human so we call
• Very vulnerable, because if anything messes up there could be severe consequences (most
Explain fetal stage
• Fetal stage is when the body grows rapidly bones harden, organs become fully developed and
• 2226 weeks is the age of viability (when babies can survive if they were born prematurely)
How can environmental factors affect development?
• Baby and mother are linked, if mother decides to treat her body like shit then it affects the baby.
• Tertogens: external agents (drugs and viruses) that can harm embryo
Name the factors
1. Maternal drug use
• Drugs are bad for babies...
• Babies from herion users are born addicted to it and have high chances of early death
• Cocaine have problems with birth complications
• Weed tend to have physical problems.
• Alcohol can make the fetus have genital issues
2. Maternal illness & exposure to toxins
• HIV, AIDS, very susceptible to diseases
• Environmental factors (pollution)
3. Maternal nutrition and emotions
4. Fetal origins of disease
• Canada is 16 for infant mortality rates THE WONDROUS YEARS OF CHILDHOOD
What is motor development?
Muscular coordination required for physical activities
What are the basic principles for motor development ?
1. Cephalocaudal trend: head to foot direction of motor development (uses arms before legs)
2. Proximodistal trend: centre outward of motor development (torso first)
Maturation Development: gradual unfolding of genetic blue print
What are developmental norms?
• Median age at which the baby starts to actually to do something. (behaviour and abilities become
How are cultural variations significant to motor development
• People in Kenya train infants t stand and walk after birth, they are able to do so a month earlier
than normal babies. Not that it really matters
• Paragruay people (Ache) don’t let their babies do anything, basically tied to mother so they
development a year later than normal kiddies.
What are the different temperaments of babies?
• Longitudinal design: one group being tested over a long period of time
o Takes forever to complete
• Crosssectional design: observes differing ages at single of point of time
• Cohort effects: there are differences in age groups because they grow up in different time periods
3 Main Types: at 3 months you can tell
What is attachment?
• When the kid becomes attached and have some emotional bonds with a caregiver
• Separation anxiety: ... basic but you get upset when taken away from caregiver #clingy
Name some theories of attachment?
• Behaviourlist : attachment because the mother fed the kid
• Harlow: used monkey babies and made them feed from cloth mother and from a bottle. Once they
scared the shit out of the monkey, it would run to the cloth mother regardless if it fed from her or
• Bowlby: came up with survival value
What are some patterns with attachment?
Strange situation procedure: infants exposed to 8 separation and reunion situations and find out if theyre
attached or not.
1. Secure attachment: happy when mother around, when she ditches kids like AWWW SHIT HELL
NO and freaks out, then calms down after mother return. 2. Anxious – Ambivalent attachment: the kid is anxious when mom is around and even worse when
she leaves, and stay a little shithead even when she returns.
3. Avoidant attachment: this kid doesn’t give a shit if shes there or leaves
4. Disorganized disorientated attachment: avoids and doesn’t trust mother, confused if they should
How does culture and attachment relate?
What is erikson’s stage theory?
Individuals must go through stages in order and that development is marked by discontinuities
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generatively vs. Selfabsorption
8. Integrity vs. Despair
What is cognitive development?
Kiddies pattern of thinking