Chapter 10: Motivations and Emotion
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES & CONCEPTS
What are the motivational theories?
1. Drive theory
2. Incentive theory
3. Evolutionary theory
What is the drive theory?
• Drive theory is basically people performing or trying to achieve something to return their body to
homeostasis (when the body is at equilibrium)
• Drive: state of tension that motivate and organism to do an activity to reduce the tension
What is the incentive theory?
• The incentive theory is external stimuli cause for changes in motivational state, incentive is
• Drive and incentive are push and pull (drive pushes, incentives pull)
What is the evolutionary theory?
Basically human motives and natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproduction,
What’s the range and diversity of human motives?
Humans have a huge diversity of motives and can be distinguished by biological motives which include
(hunger, thirst, sex, temperature) and social motives (check442)
THE MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING
What are the biological factors in the regulation of hunger?
• Glucose and digestive
Explain brain regulation of hunger
• The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that controls biological needs which include hunger.
The main parts that regulate it is called: Arcuate and paraventricular nucleus.
• Arcuate is the more important one apparently.
Explain digestive and glucose regulation.
• Food is turned into glucose which is just sugar and then circulated around the blood stream, low
levels of glucose indicate hunger while high level means people are sated.
• Arcuate is sensitive to the glucose level
• The digestive system also has a role, as food is consumed it stretches the stomach which sends
signals to stop eating.
Explain hormone’s used to regulate hunger
• Insulin: extracts the glucose in the blood to be used for cells (pancreas)
• Ghrelin: starts stomach contractions to promote hunger (stomach) • CCK: sends signal to say the body is sated (upper intestines)
• Leptin: just floats around and tells the brain (hypothalamus) how many fat cells there are. High
leptin levels mean less hungry
What are the environmental factors of regulation of hunger?
• Availability of food
• Learned preferences
Explain how food availability affects regulation of hunger
• Presence of others
Explain learned preferences and habits
• Basically different ethnic groups eat different things and what we learn to stick too is what we
• Also people learn to enjoy tastes from an early age (salt at 4 months) or hate it depending on how
much they consume it.
Explain how stress affects regulation of hunger
• Pretty basic... freshman 15 is a prime example. You eat more when you feel stressed
What are the roots of obesity?
• Textbook explains obesity, if you need a definition you need to evaluate your life or get out more.
• BMI over 30 is obese.
• Men are more likely to go from normal to overweight
• Women are more likely to go from normal to obese (FUCK BABIES)
What are the factors that cause obesity?
• Genetic predisposition
• Excessive eating and inadequate exercise
• Sensitivity to external cues
o Obese people are sensitive to cues that involve hunger but not internal cutes (if they feel
• Concept of set point
o That the body monitors fatcell levels to keep weight fairly stable
o Set point theory: weight remains stable as long as there are no changes in any factors
• Dietary restraint
o Overworked all the time have no time to eat and then fucking wreck shit when they do.
• Eating disorders
SEXUAL MOTIVATION & BEHAVIOUR
Explain the human sexual response cycle • Excitement
o Arousal rises rapidly, vasocongestion makes erections and a girl wet
o Arousal continues to build but at a slower pace, precum and tightening of lips
o Muscular contractions, super intensity. Women are more likely to be multiorgasmic
o Refractory period meaning men can’t get up. Basically this phase is just coming down
What are the different analyses in sexual behaviour?
• Parental investment theory: mating patterns depends on what each sex has to invest (time, energy
How do gender differences relate to patters o