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Chapter 3

PSYChapter 3.doc

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Dax Urbszat

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Oct62003 CHANAPSNotes From ReadingCHAPTER 3 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIORICommunication in the Nervous SystemANervous Tissue The Basic Hardware12 Major Categories for Cells in Nervous SystemaGliacells found throughout the nervous system that provide structural support and insulations for neurons Help maintain the chemical environment of the neuronsbNuerons the individual cells in the nervous sytem that receive integrate and transmit info Permit communication mostly within other neuronsonly sensory organs revieve signals from outside the nervous system2Parts of a Neuron aSoma cell bodycontains the nucleus and muc of the chemical machinery common to most cellsbRest of neuron dedicated to handling info cDendritesparts of the neuron that are speacialized to receive infodAxoninfo travels from dendrites to axon which are the long thin fiber that transmit signals away from the soma to other neurons or muscles and glands eMyelin sheathmany axons wrapped in cells with a high concentration of myelin Insulating material from glial cells that encases some neurons Speeds up transmissiono of info iMultiple Scleroris due to deterioration of myelin sheathf Terminal buttonssmall knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters At end of axons in clusters gSynapsepoint at which neurons connect Junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to another BThe Neural Impulse Using Energy to Send Information1The Nueron at Rest A Tiny BatteryaNeural impulse is a complex electrochemical ractionbThe resting potential of a neuron is its stable negative charge when the cell is inactive Potential Energy of a Nueron2The Action Potentialbrief shift in a nuerons electrical charge that travels along an axonaAbsolure Refractory Periodthe minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential can not begin down time3The All or None LawaEither the neuron fires or it doesnt and its action potentials are always the same ie weaker stimuli dont produce smaller action potentialsbHowever they can change the rate of action potentials A stronger stimulus will make for more rapid action potentials in a shorter period of time CThe Synapse Where Nuerons Meet1Sending Messages Chemicals as CouriersaSynaptic Clefta microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuronbPresynaptic Neuronsends the signal postsynaptic neuron receives the signal15
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